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0-9 ... 58 A ... 71 B ... 73 C ... 124 D ... 55 E ... 31
F ... 39 G ... 52 H ... 77 I ... 49 J ... 21 K ... 45
L ... 48 M ... 113 N ... 48 O ... 17 P ... 82 Q ... 3
R ... 59 S ... 121 T ... 51 U ... 25 V ... 30 W ... 42
X ... 3 Y ... 8 Z ... 11 !@#$ ... 0    


Page: 1.1 James D. Watson — Welcome
James D. Watson: [00:00:00] This should be a truly exciting meeting. We had one on the history of DNA sequencing and all the technology developed two years ago. (1) It is extraordinary just how many people and how clever they have been, and that [00:00:30
Page: 1.4 Robin Weiss — Retrovirus History and Early Searches for Human Retroviruses
Robin Weiss: [00:00:00] Thank you, Steve [Goff], but it was the organizers who gave me this title, but I kept to it, and it's great to be back at Cold Spring Harbor and to see so many longstanding colleagues and friends. Thank you for inviting me. Now the
Page: 1.5 John Coffin — The Origin of Molecular Retrovirology
John Coffin: [00:00:00] I have to start by thanking the organizers, but I would particularly like to thank the Cold Spring Harbor people for the idea of having this meeting. It has been really an enormous honor and pleasure to be able to interact with Bob
Page: 1.6 Harold Varmus — Animal Retroviruses and Cancer Research
Harold Varmus: [00:00:00] Well, it's a pleasure to begin the second half of what I call the Antiquities session. We're old, the information's old, the audience is partly old. I have a special word for John Coffin thanking him for setting me up, saving me
Page: 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa
Max Essex: Okay. Thank you. I'm going to talk about a little bit more than [just] feline retroviruses, but I will talk about them. Okay. I think Robin [Weiss] mentioned that the first evidence of feline leukemia virus was by Bill Jarrett (1928–2011, veter
Page: 10th International Cancer Congress, Houston, October 1970
10th International Cancer Congress, Houston, October 1970. The International Cancer Congress was later renamed the World Cancer Congress. See
Page: 10th International Virology Congress, Jerusalem, August 1996
Page: 11th International AIDS Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 1996
11th International AIDS Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 7–12, 1996, now remembered as the event that introduced highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as an effective and lasting treatment for HIV/AIDS.
Page: 12th International AIDS Conference, Geneva, 1998
Page: 13th International AIDS Conference, Durban, 2000
Page: 18th International AIDS Conference, Vienna, 2010
Page: 19th International AIDS Conference, Washington, DC, 2012
Page: 2.0 Michael Gottlieb — Introduction to Session 2
Michael Gottlieb: [00:00:00] My thanks to the organizers and my co-chair for conceiving the idea for this meeting. Bruce [Walker] has allowed me three minutes to say something at the start of this as a chair. It's a pleasure to see many of you who I know,
Page: 2.1 Paul Volberding — The First Patients
Paul Volberding: [00:00:00] Great. Well, it's a thrill to be here, look around the room, and lots of very important people that did so much with this epidemic. Thanks especially to Bob [Gallo] for inviting me. Heard about this I think about when I was giv
Page: 2.2 James Curran — Deciphering the Epidemiology of AIDS
Jim Curran: Thanks, Mike [Gottlieb], and Bruce [Walker], and all the organizers. It's nice to be here with all of the passionate, committed veterans working on HIV and AIDS. I'm going to talk mostly about the pre-HIV era. I want to start by just describin
Page: 2.3 Mark Harrington — The Importance of Activism to the US Response
Mark Harrington: I'd like to thank the organizers very much for the introduction to speak here. Also, I'd like to thank the gentleman in the AV room for helping me to turn my talk into a PowerPoint, which began with a photo stream. My talk today is dedica
Page: 2.4 Robert Gallo — Discoveries of Human Retrovirus, Their Linkage to Disease as Causative Agents & Preparation for the Future
Bob Gallo: [00:00:00] Good late morning. I want to take one second to thank and say what a fantastic job the co-organizers did, Bruce [Walker] is standing right next to me, and John [Coffin], who was a ball of fire and sometimes a lot of discussions. I ne
Page: 2.5 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi — Discovery of HIV
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi: Thanks for inviting me, Bob and Bruce. I'm the first woman as a speaker. [laughs] [applause] Things have changed over the years but still, you can see that male are always the first. [laughter] I'm [00:00:30] joking, of course.
Page: 2.6 Tony Fauci — 35 Years of HIV/AIDS: Science and Policy
Tony Fauci: [00:00:00] Thank you very much, Bruce. It's really a pleasure and a privilege actually to be here with you today and join so many of our long-standing colleagues in reviewing this, really, I think, a historic situation of the 35 years that we'
Page: 2nd International AIDS Conference, Paris, 1986
Page: 3.1 Marty St. Clair: Discovery of AZT as the First Anti-HIV Drug
Marty St. Clair: [00:00:00] Let's get started right away. I always like to start with just putting people back in the day when HIV first came to be in this country. Like I always like to start with, June 5th, 1981 when Michael Gottlieb reported an MMWR, t
Page: 3.2 Samuel Broder: The First Clinical Trials of Antiretroviral Drugs
Samuel Broder: [00:00:00] Now I will ask a very important question in our times, forgive me in advance. Is this mic on? [laughter] You had to be there. I'd like to present my personal reflections, I was asked by Bruce Walker and others to give my personal
Page: 3.3 Douglas Richman: Antiviral Drug Resistance and Combination ART
Doug Richman: [00:00:00] I guess to follow on a couple of things that John [Mellors] said, in terms of preparation, I did my training before HIV was appreciated. I think that my years of training with Tom Merigan (b. 1934), my assignment, he had just disc
Page: 3.4 Raymond Schinazi — Discovery and Development of Novel NRTIs
Ray Schinazi: Thank you Bob [Gallo]. Thank you for inviting me and the rest of the gang. It's a pleasure to be here. I think that last time I was at Cold Spring Harbor, I was about 32 years old at a herpes meeting many moons ago. It's nice to be back and—
Page: 3.5 Daria Hazuda: Discovery and Development of Integrase Inhibitors
Daria Hazuda: [00:00:00] First, let me say it really is a tremendous honor to be here at this meeting with so many luminaries in the field. I feel tremendously awed and privileged. I'm going to start my talk with this slide. I know it was shown earlier by
Page: 3.6 John C. Martin — Making it Simpler: A Single Pill to Treat HIV
John Martin: [00:00:00] Okay, well, I also have to thank Bob [Gallo] for the invitation and the team that put together the conference. Bob suggests this title, said you can talk about what you want to talk about. I can honestly talk about how we make nucl
Page: 3TC (lamivudine)
NRTI analog of cytidine.
Page: 4.0.1 Jeffrey Lifson — Session 4, Introduction 1
Jeffrey Lisfson: I'm Jeff Lifson from the Frederick National Laboratory. I'd like to welcome all of you to this evening's session on Human and Primate Retroviruses and the Origin of HIV. If I could have the first slide. I wanted to make a couple of introd
Page: 4.0.2 Ruth Ruprecht — Session 4, Introduction 2
Ruth Ruprecht: Thank you Jeff [Lifson] and good evening everybody. Jeff has given you a slide. Could you cut down to the slides please? A slide showing you the origin of many of those SIVs, but I would like to point out that there is actually one other or
Page: 4.1 Ronald Desrosiers — The Origin of SIVmac: Non-human Primate Models for HIV
Ronald Desrosiers: [00:00:00] Okay, thank you. This sounds like it's working. It's an honor and a pleasure to be here. First, let me say could you add those seven minutes to my allotted time? I'm going to be talking about the discovery of SIV and the dev
Page: 4.2 Martine Peeters — On the Road to HIV: Primate Lentiviruses
Martine Peeters: First of all, I would like to thank the organizers for giving me the opportunity to present here today, the work that we did on primate lentiviruses. My story begins a little bit later than most of the talks that we heard today. It starte
Page: 4.3 Beatrice Hahn — Apes to Humans: The Origin of HIV
Beatrice Hahn: Okay, so thank you very much for the invitation to speak tonight. What I will talk to you about tonight is the title that the organizers gave me, “Apes to Humans: Origin of HIV.” What I really will tell you is how remarkably much we know ab
Page: 4.4 Michael Worobey — Spread of HIV in the New World
Michael Worobey: [00:00:00] Thank you very much. I imagine I wasn't the only person who was thinking, I'm pretty sure I've been called stupid by Beatrice Hahn at some point in my career. The chimps have a higher place in the order of things. First, I want
Page: 5.0 Anna Marie Skalka — Introduction, Session 5
Anna Marie Skalka: [00:00:00] I think a lot of people share my feeling that this has been a really phenomenal historical meeting. Like Jim Watson, I'm really struck a little bit by nostalgia because in a way it was the methods and principles established b
Page: 5.1 Flossie Wong-Staal — Discovery of Human Retroviral Transactivators
Flossie Wong-Staal: [00:00:00] Yes, okay, good. I also want to thank the organizers for including me in this very historic meeting. The other day, I was texting somebody and after I clicked send, I noticed that my name was autocorrected to “fossil.” I thi
Page: 5.2 Joseph Sodroski — Primate Host-Specific Selection of Immunodeficiency Virus Gag and Env Proteins
Joseph G. Sodroski is a virologist and immunologist at Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
Page: 5.3 Michael Malim — Discovery of APOBEC Restriction
Michael Malim: [00:00:00] Well, good morning. First of all, thank you very much to John [Coffin], Bob [Gallo], and Bruce [Walker] for convening this meeting and inviting me. It's quite a humbling experience really to speak after some of the people we've l
Page: 5.4 Edward Berger — Discovery of HIV Co-receptors
Ed Berger: Okay. Thank you. That's a very good introduction because I was about to start out by saying that the HIV discoveries really came about by a highly-focused efforts from many researchers around the world. Giving my perspective on our contribution
Page: 5.5 Andrew Rice — Mechanism of tat Transactivation
Andrew Rice: I'd like to thank the organizers for inviting me to present our work at this wonderful meeting. It's a great honor. Today, the mechanism of action of Tat is known in considerable detail. Towards the end of my talk, I'll give a slide on the mo
Page: 5.6 Michael Emerman — Host-virus Co-evolution
Michael Emerman: [00:00:00] Thank you. It's an honor to speak at this meeting. My assigned task is to talk about HIV-host coevolution. This is the HIV retrovirus life cycle. The idea is that there are these numbers of restriction factors that block variou
Page: 5th International AIDS Conference, Montreal, June 1989
(The search below searches for "Montreal" and may return extraneous results.)
Page: 6.1 Sharon Hillier — Development and Application of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
Sharon Hillier: [00:00:00] Well, it's really a great pleasure. I'm honored to be here. I'm not a basic scientist. I'm not a retrovirologist. I don't discover drugs. But what we have done is actually used small molecules, antiretrovirals, to actually preve
Page: 6.2 Dennis Burton — How Does HIV Evade the Antibody Response?
Dennis Burton: [00:00:00] First of all, like many have said, it's a great honor to be invited to be here, and thanks to Bob [Gallo], John [Coffin], Mila [Pollock], and Bruce [Walker] for the invitation. I didn't have any personal slides. I'll just tell yo
Page: 6.3 Bruce Walker — Role of T Cells in Controlling HIV Infection
Bruce Walker: [00:00:00] Thanks very much. Thanks, everybody for coming. Thanks to all the speakers and organizers, and everybody else and the Cold Spring Harbor. I'll start just by saying a few words about myself. I grew up in Boulder, Colorado. I went t
Page: 6.4 Barton Haynes — Development of HIV Vaccine: Steps and Missteps
Bart Haynes: [00:00:00] Thanks very much. I want to thank the organizers for this wonderful honor to be here. This has been a phenomenal meeting and I'm just very grateful to be here. For the next few minutes I will talk about some of the early contributi
Page: 6.5 Emilio Emini — Issues in HIV Vaccine Development: Will the Future be any Easier than the Past?
Emilio Emini: [00:00:00] Thank you very much, Dan [Barouch]. Thank you to the organizers, as everyone else said, for the honor, for the invitation. It's been really incredible sitting here for the last two and a half days, and it's certainly a lot more i
Page: 6.6 Robert Redfield — The PEPFAR Program to Treat HIV in Africa
Robert Redfield: [00:00:00] Thank you very much. I also want to thank the organizers for the opportunity to talk today. For a couple of introductions, when the AIDS epidemic was started, I was at Walter Reed 1980, 1982, doing my infectious disease fellows
Page: 6.7 Salim Abdool Karim — Stopping the Spread of HIV in Developing Countries
Salim Abdool Karim: [00:00:00] Good afternoon, everyone. I'm very sorry that I'm not able to be there with you in person due to personal circumstances but I hope that this video will give you a sense of my comments around stopping the spread of HIV in dev
Page: 8.1 John Mellors — MACS and Beyond: Epidemiology, Viremia and Pathogenesis
Note: The initial 7 minutes of John Mellors' talk has been omitted, due to an audio problem. John Mellors: —Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Here are the PIs. Steve Wolinsky's picture is missing. It has nothing to do [00:00:30] with our recent disputes abou
Page: 8.2 David Ho — Unraveling of HIV Dynamics In Vivo
David Ho: [00:00:00] Good morning. Let me thank the organizers for this opportunity to speak. This is to John [Mellors], I indeed do dynamics, and I speak English. [laughter] I'm going to focus my presentation solely on the story of unraveling of HIV dyna
Page: 8.3 George Shaw — Transmitted/Founder HIV Genomes: What They Teach Us
George: Some old some new. Can we get the lights? I'm going to tell you eventually about transmitted/founder viruses, but the story begins earlier than that. I was a young buck coming out of University of Michigan as a physician-scientist, and I wanted to
Page: 8.4 Robert Siliciano — The Challenge of the HIV Reservoir
Bob Siliciano: [00:00:00] How about now? Now good? I realized that our work has been very heavily dependent on the contributions of many people in this room. I'd like to argue that the main barrier to curing HIV infection is a small pool of resting memory
Page: 8.5 Sharon Lewin — Research to a Cure: A Possible Goal?
Sharon Lewin: Thanks very much, Ashley [Haase]. Thanks to the organizers for inviting me. It's been an amazing few days. I feel honored to be here, particularly honored as the only Australian in the audience, except for one very important Australian, who
Page: 8.6 David Baltimore — Bringing it to an End (And Where Are We Going?)
David Baltimore: [00:00:00] This has been a great event, and I'm honored to be part of it and having an opportunity to finish it up. It is impressive to see how much can be learned in 35 years of research, and how you take a challenge that's put up by [00
Page: 9.1 Jon Cohen — Responding to AIDS: A Journalist's View
Jon Cohen: [00:00:00] Thank you for that very nice introduction. I have 20 minutes, so I'm going to race through my slides. If you've been at the meeting, you'll see that my talk is very different from everything that's been presented. If you haven't, it'
Page: 9.2 Staffan Hildebrand — Face of AIDS Project
Staffan Hildebrand: [00:00:00] I'm a documentary filmmaker from Sweden. Our dream as documentary filmmaker is to have this one-time life assignment, not just to do a documentary film and release it and discuss it, but also to be involved in something long
Page: 9.3 Victoria Harden — The Future of the History of AIDS
Victoria Harden: [00:00:00] I'd like to thank the organizers for inviting me, but much more importantly, I want to thank them for hosting this meeting. I don't know when in the future we will have this many luminaries in AIDS research assembled under one
Page: 9th International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, 1993


Page: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center
Page: abacavir (ABC, Ziagen)
Abacavir is a nucleoside analogue of guanosine. In combination with 3TC (lamivudine) it is sold as Epzicom in the US, and Kivexa outside the US. In combination with 3TC and AZT it is sold as Trizivir. In combination with 3TC and DTG (dolutegravir) it is s
Page: Abbott Laboratories
Illinois-based pharmaceutical company.
Page: Abdool Karim, Quarraisha (b. 1960)
Quarraisha Abdool Karim is the Associate Scientific Director of CAPRISA and Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at Columbia University. She is the wife of Salim Abdool Karim.
Page: ABL
ABL: a proto-oncogene associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia. c-ABL is occasionally used in reference to the mammalian gene, in contradistinction to v-ABL, a viral oncogene found in murine leukemia virus (MLV).
Page: Abrams, Donald I.
Donald I. "Don" Abrams, hematologist and oncologist who treated some of the first AIDS patients in San Francisco, now a noted medical cannabis researcher.
Page: Achmat, Abdurrazack "Zackie" (b. 1962)
Abdurrazack "Zackie" Achmat, South African activist and founder of Treatment Action Campaign (TAC).
Page: Achong, Bert Geoffrey (1928–1996)
Bert Geoffrey Achong, 1928–1996, Trinidadian pathologist
Page: aciclovir (ACV)
Aciclovir (ACV, or acyclovir) is an antiviral medication for herpes simplex virus. Valaciclovir is a prodrug of aciclovir formulated to make it more orally bioavailable.
Page: ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power)
Founded in 1987 in New York City by Larry Kramer, among others. One of the first activist organizations founded to fight the AIDS pandemic specifically targeting political inaction.
Page: ACTG protocol 019 (1989–1994)
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 019, 1989–1994, "Safety and Efficacy of Zidovudine for Asymptomatic HIV Infected Individuals (CD4+cell counts below 500/mm3)" 1 incomplete check dates for 019
Page: ACTG Study 5257 "ARDENT" (2009–2013)
ACTG Study 5257, “The ARDENT Study: Atazanavir, Raltegravir, or Darunavir With Emtricitabine/Tenofovir for Naive Treatment,” 2009–2013
Page: ACTG trial 076 (1991–1994)
AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) trial 076, 1991–1994. Test of prophylactic use of AZT (azidothymidine) for pregnant HIV-positive women to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. See h
Page: activism, civil rights, protests, and social movements
This term indexes activism and civil rights movements generally, including the women's rights and gay rights movements. For specific organizations look under Places, institutions, and programs.
Page: adefovir
Adefovir is a nucleotide analogue used to treat hepatitis B.
Page: adeno-associated virus (AAV)
A small, single-stranded DNA virus in the family of parvoviruses, often used in experimental attempts to develop gene therapies. Not to be confused with adenoviruses, which are a family of larger, double-stranded DNA viruses. Both adenoviruses and AAVs ha
Page: adenovirus
The family of Adenoviridae are non-enveloped, double stranded DNA viruses, about 90–100 nm across. Not to be confused with adeno-associated virus, or AAV, which is a genus of much smaller (20 nm), single-stranded DNA viruses in the family of parvoviruses.
Page: adherence, patient compliance
Adherence or patient compliance is the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Page: adjuvant
An adjuvant is a material or chemical added to a vaccine to boost the immune system's response to the primary components of the vaccine, the immunogens.
Page: ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion)
In pharmacology and pharmacokinetics "ADME" describes how a drug moves through an organism: absorption: how the drug travels from its site of administration to its site of action in cells and tissues, e.g. the bloodstream distribution: how a drug is distr
Page: Affordable Care Act (ACA, Obamacare)
Page: Afghanistan
Page: Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies
Page: Africa, sub-Saharan Africa
Continent-level index.
Page: African green monkeys, vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus)
Chlorocebus is a genus of six species African, Old World monkeys. The terms "African green monkey" and "vervet monkey" are sometimes used (interchangeably) to refer to the whole genus; this usage also assumes that the six species are actually subspecies.
Page: Agouron Pharmaceuticals
Agouron Pharmaceuticals was an American pharmaceutical company acquired by Warner-Lambert in 1999, which itself was acquired by Pfizer in 2000. Agouron co-developed the protease inhibitor nelfinavir.
Page: Ahuka, Steve Mundeke
Steve Mundeke Ahuka, Congolese virologist and physician, National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa
AIDES is a French patient advocacy group, founded by sociologist Daniel Defert after the death of his partner Michel Foucault.
Page: AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)
Page: AIDS Quilt, NAMES Project
Formally the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt
Page: AIDS service organizations (ASOs)
Page: Ajao, Kaye
Page: Aldovini, Anna
Anna Aldovini is a cell and molecular biologist at Harvard University.
Page: Alizon, Marc
Page: Alkhatib, Ghalib
Molecular virologist, formerly at NIH, currently at New York Institute of Technology.
Page: Alt, Frederick W.
Page: alum (aluminum hydroxide adjuvant)
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, one of the components of bauxite (aluminum ore). It is used as an adjuvant in vaccines.
Page: American Cancer Society
Page: amfAR
Officially "amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research," founded in 1983 as the American Foundation for AIDS Research.
Page: Amgen (Applied Molecular Genetics)
Pharmaceutical company.
Page: Ammann, Arthur J. (b. 1936)
Pediatric immunologist at UCSF and early AIDS researcher.
Page: analogy
Page: analytical separation
See also centrifuge.
Page: Ananworanich, Jintanat
Page: Annals of Internal Medicine (journal)
Page: Annual meeting on retroviruses, CSHL
Originally begun as the Tumor Virus Meeting, then the RNA Tumor Virus Meeting, and later the Retrovirus Meeting.
Page: ANRS (Agence nationale de recherches sur le sida et les hépatites virales)
Page: antibiotics
Page: antibody test, antigen test, serological test, serology
Usually refers to identification of antibodies in blood serum.
Page: antibody, immunoglobulin (Ig)
See also: immunofluorescence
Page: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (journal)
Page: antiretroviral therapy (ART)
Page: Antwerp
Page: APC
APC gene encodes the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, a protein that regulates the expression of β-catenin, and thus considered a tumor-suppressor gene.
APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) is a family of RNA-cleaving enzymes, many of which have antiviral function.
Page: arms race
Evolutionary "arms race," see also coevolution.
Page: Arnold, Eddy
Chemist, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University.
Page: Arthur, Larry O.
Page: Arya, Suresh K.
Suresh K. "Sasha" Arya, scientist at NIH.
Page: Asmuth, David
Infectious diesease specialist at UC Davis.
Page: Atlanta
Page: Auerbach, David
Dr. David Auerbach, an EIS officer in Los Angeles in the early-1980s.
Page: Australia
Page: automation
Page: autopsy
Page: Autran, Brigitte
Page: avian leukosis virus (ALV)
avian leukosis virus (ALV), also known as avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) taxonomically related to Rous sarcoma virus
Page: avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV)
Page: Axel, Richard (b. 1946)
Richard Axel, b. 1946, American molecular biologist
Page: AXIN
AXIN1 is a gene that encodes Axin-1, a protein involved in the regulation of Wnt and β-catenin, and thus a proto-oncogene.
Page: AZT (azidothymidine)
AZT, azidothymidine, also known as Zidovudine (ZDV). The first effective antiretroviral to treat AIDS on the market, with much controversy. AZT is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and is an analogue of thymidine. Combivir is a double combinat


Page: B cell
Page: b12 (IgG1b12)
Page: baboons (Papio)
Baboons, genus Papio. There are five species of baboon: hamadryas, Guinea, olive, yellow, and chacma baboon. The Hamadryas baboon is native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian penninsula, the other four species of baboon are found in sub-Saharan Africa.
Page: BACH2
BACH2: encodes transcription regulator protein BACH2 (broad complex-tramtrack-bric a brac and Cap'n'collar homology 2).
Page: bacteriology
Page: bacteriophage
Page: Bailes, Elizabeth M.
Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham
Page: Baltimore
Baltimore, Maryland. (Not to be confused with David Baltimore.)
Page: Balzarini, Jan
Page: Barbas, Carlos F., III (1964–2014)
Carlos F. Barbas III
Page: Barry, David Walter "Dave" (1944–2002)
Page: basic vs. applied research
Page: Bassin, Robert H.
Page: Bath University
Page: Baylor College of Medicine
Formerly University of Dallas Medical Department, Baylor University College of Medicine. Independent but affiliated with Baylor University.
Page: Bazmi, Holly
University of Pittsburgh
Page: Beem, Marc O. (1923–2014)
Marc O. Beem, 1923–2014, pediatrician and infectious disease expert at University of Chicago.
Page: Bekker, Linda-Gail
Former president of the International AIDS Society, currently (2020) the COO of the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation in Cape Town, South Africa.
Page: Belgium
Page: Belleau, Bernard (1925–1989)
Canadian pharmacologist known for his role in the discovery of 3TC.
Page: Bergalis, Kimberly A. (1968–1991)
Kimberly Ann Bergalis (1968–1991) was shown to have been infected with HIV by her dentist David J. Acer, who himself died of AIDS in 1990.
Page: Berlin patient, Timothy Ray Brown (1966–2020)
The term "Berlin patient" has been applied to two anonymous HIV-infected people who were given experimental treatments in Berlin, Germany, and were subsequently determined to be free of HIV. The first "Berlin patient" was diagnosed with HIV infection in 1
Page: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC)
Teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA.
Page: Bethesda, Maryland
Bethesda. is an unincorporated census-designated place in Montgomery County, Maryland. The NIH and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are both located in Bethesda.
Page: Bigner, Darell D.
Pathologist at Duke.
Page: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, formerly the William H. Gates Foundation, often shortened to "Gates Foundation."
Page: Binley, James M.
Page: bioaccumulation
Page: BioChem Pharma
Former Canadian pharmaceutical company, purchased by Shire Pharmaceuticals in 2001.
Page: Biochemical Pharmacology (journal)
Page: bioethics and medical ethics
Page: Bioko, Equatorial Guinea
Bioko is the largest island of the Insular Region of Equatorial Guinea, and home to the capital of Equatorial Guinea, Malabo.
Page: Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC)
The Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC) is the largest primate research center in Europe, and is located in the Netherlands.
Page: biopsy
Page: biosecurity
Biosecurity refers to measures taken to prevent the spread of crop, livestock, or human diseases, as well as invasive species.
Page: Birx, Deborah L. (b. 1956)
US Global AIDS Coordinator since 2014.
Page: Bishop, J. Michael (b. 1936)
J. Michael Bishop, b. 1936, American immunologist and microbiologist. Long-time collaborator with Harold Varmus, with whom he shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of proto-oncogenes
Page: Bishop, Kate
Kate Bishop, virologist at the Francis Crick Institute.
Page: Black Death, bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis
The Black Death was a pandemic of Yersinia pestis that was the largest pandemic in human history. It is usually defined as having struck Eurasia, the Mediterranean, and adjacent areas between 1346 and 1353, with subsequent outbreaks lasting until the earl
Page: Blattner, William A.
American virologist, co-founded the Institute of Human Virology (IHV) with Robert Gallo and Robert R. Redfield in 1996 at University of Maryland.
Page: Blewitt, Neil (b. 1933)
Page: blood — banks, donors, plasma, screening, transfusions, clotting factors (factor VIII), PBMCs
This term indexes issues with blood related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including blood banking, blood donation, various forms of blood screening, blood transfusions, and blood products such as blood plasma and factor VIII clotting factor, used in the treat
Page: Bloom, Barry R.
Distinguished Service Professor and Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public Health in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Department of Global Health and Population in the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
Page: bnAb (broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody)
Most antibodies produced by the immune system are highly specific to a single antigen particle and virus strain. However, HIV-1 has very high genetic variability, and thus evades most antibodies because the latter are too specific. Several broadly neutra
Page: Boehringer Ingelheim
German pharmaceutical company.
Page: Bolognesi, Dani P.
Page: Bolten, Joshua B. (b. 1954)
Former White House Chief of Staff to George W. Bush.
Page: bone marrow
Page: bone saw
Page: Borrow, Persephone
Page: Botswana
Page: Botswana Combination Prevention Project (BCPP)
Page: Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP)
Page: Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory, Gaborone
Page: bottleneck — population bottleneck, genetic bottleneck
Page: Boucher, Charles A. B.
Page: bovine leukemia virus (BLV)
Page: Brandt, Edward Jr. (1933–2007)
Acting Surgeon General of the United States 1981–1982, and served as the United States Assistant Secretary for Health 1981–1984.
Page: Brazil
Page: breast cancer
Page: Bristol-Myers Squibb
Pharmaceutical company based in New York City.
Page: Bronx Zoo
Page: Brown, Andrew J. Leigh
Page: Brun-Vézinet, Françoise
French clinical virologist who worked with Willy Rozenbaum and Jean-Claude Chermann.
Page: Buchbinder, Sarah
Page: bully pulpit
A public office or position of authority that provides its occupant with an outstanding opportunity to speak out on any issue.
Page: Bureau of Biologics (FDA)
The Bureau of Biologics was established as a part of the FDA in 1972, after responsibility for monitoring the safety of vaccines, sera, and blood products was transferred from the NIH to the FDA. In 1982 the Bureau of Biologics was briefly merged with the
Page: Burns, Ken (b. 1953)
Page: Burroughs-Wellcome & Company, Glaxo Inc., GlaxoSmithKline
The pharmaceutical company Burroughs-Wellcome & Company was founded in 1880. In 1995 it merged with Glaxo Pharmaceuticals to form Glaxo Wellcome. In 2000 Glaxo Wellcome merged with SmithKline Beecham, forming the present-day GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). ViiV He
Page: Bush, George H. W. (1924–2018)
George Herbert Walker Bush, 1924–2018, President of the United States from 1989–1993, and Vice President during the Reagan administration from 1981 to 1989.
Page: Bush, George W. (b. 1946)
George Walker Bush, b. 1946, President of the United States from 2000 to 2008.
Page: Bushman, Frederic D. "Rick"
Frederick "Rick" Bushman is a microbiologist at University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.
Page: bushmeat


Page: cabotegravir
Cabotegravir is an integrase inhibitor. It was studied in the HPTN 083 and 084 trials.
Page: Cairns, John (1922–2018)
Hugh John Forster Cairns, British molecular biologist and biochemist, director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory from 1963 to 1968.
Page: California National Primate Research Center
The California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) is located on the campus of and afilliated with the University of California, Davis.
Page: Caltech (California Institute of Technology)
Caltech (California Institute of Technology), Pasadena, California
Page: Cameron, Paul
Infectious disease expert at University of Melbourne
Page: Cameroon
Page: Canada
Page: canarypox virus (CNPV)
Page: Cape Town
Page: CAPRISA (Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa)
Page: CAPRISA 004 study (2007–2010)
CAPRISA 004 was a phase II trial of topically applied tenofovir gel for HIV prevention in women, conducted from 2007 to 2009, with publication of results in 2010. CAPRISA 004 was the first clinical trial to show effectiveness of a vaginal gel for HIV prev
Page: capsid, capsid protein (p24)
The capsid is the primary structural shell of a virus, composed of repeating protein subunits. The primary HIV viral capsid protein is called "p24" because its molecular weight is about 24 kilodaltons. (The primary capsid protein of HTLV is called "p24" f
Page: caregiver, caregiving
Page: Caribbean and West Indies
"West Indies" and "Caribbean" are often used interchangeably, though their precise historical and geographical meaning have varied greatly. Today the the "West Indies" refer to the island nations and territories of the Antilles, the Bahama Archipelago, an
Page: carrier, asymptomatic carrier
A person or organism that has become infected with a pathogen, but that displays no signs or symptoms.
Page: Carter, Carol A.
Virologist and immunologist at Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook University.
Page: Carter, Jimmy (b. 1924)
Jimmy Carter (b. 1924), President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Page: case-control study
A case-control study is a non-randomized observational epidemiological survey, used to identify potential causes or factors of a disease.
Page: CAT assay (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase)
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) is an enzyme that disables the antibiotic compound chloramphenicol. The CAT gene can be used to test the the transcriptional activity in recombinant cloned viruses. See Joseph G. Sodroski, Craig A. Rosen, and Willia
Page: cats
Page: CCL3 (MIP-1α)
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP1α)
Page: CCL4 (MIP-1β)
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β)
Page: CCR5 (chemokine receptor type 5)
CCR5 is a receptor protein on the surface of white blood cells. In HIV infection, the HIV virion coat protein gp120 binds to the T cell glycoprotein CD4 and to CCR5, triggering the cell to absorb the HIV virion and thus becoming infected.
Page: CCR5 receptor antagonist
The CCR5 receptor antagonists are drugs that block the CCR5 receptor, which HIV uses to gain entry into CD4+ T cells.
Page: CCR5-Δ32
CCR5-Δ32 ("Delta 32") is an allele of the human CCR5 gene, and individuals who are homozygous for CCR5-Δ32 are resistant to HIV-1 infection.
Page: CD4+/CD8+ ratio
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio is the ratio of T helper cells (with the surface marker CD4) to cytotoxic T cells (with the surface marker CD8). Measurement of this ratio was a key clue in discovering the etiology of AIDS.
Page: CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US)
CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This index term refers exclusively to the CDC in the United States.
Page: cDNA clones, cDNA library
Page: Cell (journal)
5.1 Flossie Wong-Staal — Discovery of Human Retroviral Transactivators 5.5 Andrew Rice — Mechanism of tat Transactivation 8.3 George Shaw — Transmitted/Founder HIV Genomes: What They Teach Us
Page: cell culture, tissue culture, immortalized cell line
Page: cell fusion
Page: Celum, Connie L.
Public health and infectious disease specialist at University of Washington.
Page: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID)
CHAVI-ID are two consortiums established by NIAID. One consortium is located at Duke, the other at the Scripps Research Institute. The program was originally called CHAVI, and "Immunogen Discovery" was added later.
Page: Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Immunology and Disease (CIRID, 1978–1998)
Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Immunology and Disease (CIRID) at UCLA led by John L. Fahey from 1978 to 1998.
Page: Central Africa (region)
The region of Central Africa is defined by the African Development Bank as encompassing: Cameroon the Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon The United Nations adds Angola to its defini
Page: Central African Republic (CAR)
Page: Central Dogma
The "Central Dogma," so coined by Francis Crick in 1957, has either been understood as the rule that information is transferred from nucleic acids to proteins, and cannot be extracted out from the protein, or information flows from DNA to RNA to protein,
Page: Centre international de recherches médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Gabon
Page: centrifuge
See also:
Page: Cercopithecus monkeys (guenons)
The genus Cercopithecus, also known as the guenons, are Old World monkeys that live in forests. Most guenons have long tails and brightly colored coats. The guenon monkeys include the De Brazza's monkey and Sykes' monkey.
Page: Chambers, Henry F. "Chip" III
Henry F. "Chip" Chambers III, UCSF, infectious disease expert in antimicrobial resistance.
Page: Chanock, Robert M. (1924–2010)
Page: Cheingsong-Popov, Rachanee
Page: chemistry, chemists
Page: chemokines
Page: Chen, Bing
Page: Chen, Zhiwei (陳志偉)
Microbiologist at University of Hong Kong
Page: Cheng, Yung-Chi "Tommy"
Pharmaceutical chemist at Yale.
Page: Cherepanov, Peter
Page: Chermann, Jean-Claude (b. 1939)
Jean-Claude Chermann, b. 1939, French virologist, worked with Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi at the Pasteur Institute in the 1980s on the team that discovered the HIV virus.
Page: Chester Beatty Laboratories, Royal Marsden Hospital, London
Page: Chicago Tribune
Page: chicken
chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Page: Children's Hospital Oakland
Renamed UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland in 2014
Page: Chimp Haven
Chimp Haven is a chimpanzee sanctuary in the the US, Louisiana, for chimps retired from laboratory research.
Page: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
There are four subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes verus, the western chimpanzee, found in Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Libera, the Ivory Coast, and Ghana; Pan troglodytes ellioti, found in Nigeria and Cameroon; Pan troglodyte
Page: China
Page: Chirac, Jacques (1932–2019)
President of France 1995–2007
Page: chirality
Page: Chiron (1981–2006)
Chiron Corporation was a biotech firm in Emeryville, California that was acquired by Novartis in 2006.
Page: chlamydia
Page: Choi, Woo-Baeg
Chemist at Emory.
Page: Chun, Tae-Wook
Chief of the HIV Immunovirology Section at NIAID.
Page: churches
Page: cidofovir
Cidofovir (Vistide) is an antiviral medication to treat CMV retinitis, approved in 1996.
Page: circumcision
Page: Clark, Jeremy
Page: Clark, John R.
John R. Clark, hematologist and oncologist at Mass General
Page: classification, nomenclature, taxonomy
Page: Clemetson, David B. A.
Page: clinical endpoint, clinical outcome
In clinical trials (phases of clinical research) the "clinical endpoint" is the desired outcome of the treatment being tested. Contrast with surrogate marker (surrogate endpoint).
Page: clinical trials (phases of clinical research)
Clinical trials of drugs, procedures, and devices. We typically talk about clinical trials in four phases. In the FDA's language: phase I clinical trial — safety screening. "Researchers test an experimental drug or treatment in a small group of people for
Page: Clinton Foundation
founded in 1997, officially the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation
Page: Clinton, Bill (b. 1946)
William Jefferson Clinton, President of the United States 1993–2001.
Page: Clinton, Hillary (b. 1947)
Page: CNN
Page: cobicistat (Tybost)
Cobicistat is an HIV treatment that is used in combination with integrase inhibitors, usually elvitegravir. Cobicistat boosts the activity of integrase inhibitors by blocking liver enzymes that would ordinarily metabolize the integrase inhibitor.
Page: coevolution
See also evolutionary arms race.
Page: Cohen, Myron S. "Mike" (b. 1950)
Myron S. "Mike" Cohen, b. 1950, infectious disease expert, was a pioneer in conceptualizing treatment-as-prevention (TasP) and designing of HTPN Study 052 (2005–2015).
Page: cohort study
Page: coinfection
Simultaneous infection by multiple pathogens.
Page: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL)
Page: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Page: Colebunders, Robert
Page: colobus monkeys, black-and-white colobus
The colobus monkeys are a genus of eight species of Old World Monkeys, native to Central and West Africa. As per their common name, most colobus monkeys have black and white coloration. They related to, but distinct from the red colobus monkeys (Piliocolo
Page: colon cancer
Page: Columbia University
Page: community and patient participation
Page: community organizing
Page: compassionate use (Emergency Use IND)
Page: Concanavalin A (ConA)
Concanavalin A (ConA) is a legume protein that is known for stimulating the production of T cells in mouse models.
Page: condom
Page: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI)
Page: Congo (Rep. Congo-Brazzaville, D.R. Congo-Kinshasa/Zaire)
This index item refers to both the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire, and the Belgian Congo during the colonial period) and the neighboring Republic of Congo (formerly the People's Republic of Congo, and the French Congo during the colonial per
Page: Congo War, First and Second (1996–ca. 2003)
First Congo War, 1996–1997 Second Congo War, officially 1998–2002, though fighting continued well into 2003.
Page: Congress, US
This searches for "Congress" and may pick up other congresses other than the US Congress.
Page: contact tracing
Page: contamination
Page: continuous flow ultra-centrifugation
Page: control — experimental control, control group, blinded experiment
Page: Cooke, Molly
Molly Cooke, Director of Education for Global Health Sciences at UCSF, wife of Paul Volberding.
Page: Cooper, Geoffrey M.
Biologist at Boston University
Page: Coovadia, Hoosen Mahomed "Jerry" (b. 1940)
South African pediatrician and immunologist.
Page: Corey, Lawrence "Larry" (b. 1947)
Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Washington, former director of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
Page: counterfactual history
A "what if" history, hypothesized in order to evaluate the importance of actual key events.
Page: cows
Page: Cox, Patrick Spencer (1968–2012)
Page: Craigie, Robert A.
Virologist at NIH.
Page: Crawford, Lionel V. (b. 1932) and Elizabeth M.
Lionel Vivian Crawford (b. 1932) and Elizabeth M. Crawford, British virologists.
Page: credit, priority
Page: Crewdson, John M. (b. 1945)
Page: Crick, Francis H. C. (1916–2004)
Francis H. C. Crick, 1916–2004.
Page: CRISPR-Cas9
Page: Crotty, Shane
Immunologist at La Jolla Institute for Immunology
Page: Crowe, Suzanne
Page: Cullen, Bryan R. (b. 1951)
Geneticist at Duke.
Page: Cuomo, Andrew (b. 1957)
Governer of New York, 2011–
Page: cure vs. remission of HIV/AIDS
Page: CXCR4 (chemokine receptor type 4)
Also known as "fusin." In many patients with late-stage, multiple-drug resistant HIV infection, HIV starts to bind to CXCR4, in addition to the usual combination of CD4 and CCR5.
Page: cyclin T1
Page: cytokines
Page: cytomegalovirus (CMV)
cytomegalovirus (CMV): a genus of herpesvirus. Medical references to cytomegalovirus almost always refer specifically to human betaherpesvirus 5
Page: cytoplasm
Page: Czech Republic


Page: d4T (stavudine, Zerit)
d4t (stavudine, Zerit), an analogue of thymidine.
Page: Daniel, Muthiah D. (1927–2018)
Muthiah Devakadadcham Daniel was a Sri Lankan virologist and veterinary pathologist who joined the New England Regional Primate Center in 1966.
Page: dapivirine (DPV)
Dapivirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, commonly used in the vaginal ring.
Page: Darrow, William
Professor of public health at Florida International University, previously at CDC.
Page: database
Page: Dauguet, Charles
Charles "Charlie" Dauguet, electron microscopist at the Pasteur Institute, worked with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, identified LAV as a lentivirus.
Page: Day, Cheryl L.
Page: ddC (dideoxycytidine, zalcitabine)
ddC (dideoxycytidine, zalcitabine), a nucleoside analogue of cytidine
Page: ddI (didanosine, Videx)
ddI/didanosine/Videx: a nucleoside analog of adenosine
Page: De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus)
The De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is the largest of the Cercopithecus monkeys/guenons, and are native to central Africa.
Page: De Clercq, Erik (b. 1941)
Belgian medical researcher.
Page: Deeks, Steven
Page: Delaney, Martin (1945–2009)
Martin "Marty" Delaney, 1945–2009, AIDS advocate and founder of Project Inform. The HIV-cure organization Martin Delaney Collaboratory is named after him.
Page: Delaporte, Eric
Eric Delaporte is Professor of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the University and the University Hospital of Montpellier. He is the husband of Martine Peeters.
Page: Delfraissy, Jean-François
Page: demographic cohort
Page: dendritic cell
Page: dengue virus
Dengue virus (DENV)
Page: dermatology
Page: detergents and soaps
Page: development, developmental biology
Page: DeVita, Vincent T.
Page: diagram
On the general significance of diagramming and modeling in science, see: Bender, John B., and Michael Marrinan. The Culture of Diagram. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010. Bigg, Charlotte. “A Visual History of Jean Perrin’s Brownian Motion Curves.”
Page: Dictyostelium discoideum
Dictyostelium discoideum is a soil-dwelling amoeboid protist with both unicellular and multicellular phases in its lifecycle.
Page: Dimitrov, Dimiter S. "Mitco"
Antibody expert at University of Pittsburgh.
Page: Dingell, John D., Jr. (1926–2019)
John Dingell Jr. House Representative from Michigan from 1955 to 2015. Within the context of the history of HIV/AIDS research, Dingell led separate fraud investigations against David Baltimore and Bob Gallo in the 1980s and early 1990s.
Page: discovery and naming of HIV/HTLV-III/LAV/ARV
Because HIV was independently discovered by three different scientific groups in 1983–1984, three different names for HIV entered circulation: LAV, or lymphadenopathy associated virus, was the name used by the group led by Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc
Page: disease surveillance
Page: disulfiram
Page: Dja Faunal Reserve (Réserve de faune du Dja)
Southern Cameroon
Page: DNA polymerase
DNA polymerases
Page: dogs
Page: Doherty, Peter C. (b. 1940)
Immunologist and Nobel Laureate (1996) for the discovery of how T cells recognize antigens.
Page: Domingo, Esteban
Page: Dong, Krista
Page: Doris Duke Medical Research Institute
Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine
Page: Dormont, Dominique
Page: dose response
Page: douche
Page: Douek, Daniel C.
NIAID researcher.
Page: Dowell, Walt
Page: Driscoll, John S.
At National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Page: Drosophila
Page: drug discovery and development
See session 3
Page: drug resistance
Page: drug safety
Page: DTG (dolutegravir)
DTG, dolutegravir, also sold as Tivicay. Integrase inhibitor. DTG is sold as a combination with abacavir and 3TC (lamivudine) as Triumeq.
Page: Duesberg, Peter H. (b. 1936)
Peter H. Duesberg, b. 1936. German-American molecular biologist at UC Berkeley. Known in the 1970s for his research on oncogenes, but dismissed and discredited since the 1980s after he became one of the leading HIV/AIDS denialists.
Page: Dugas, Gaëtan (1952–1984)
Gaëtan Dugas, a Canadian airline steward who became infamous as "Patient 0" in Randy Shilts' early writing on the AIDS epidemic. For more information on the controversy see 2.2 James Curran — Deciphering the Epidemiology of AIDS and 4.4 Michael Worobey —
Page: Duke University, Duke University School of Medicine
Page: Dulbecco, Renato (1914–2012)
Renato Dulbecco, 1914–2012. Italian-American virologist, working at Caltech from 1949. Awarded the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Howard Temin and David Baltimore for the discovery of reverse transcriptase.
Page: Durban
Page: Dwyer, John M. (b. 1939)
Page: Dybul, Mark R. (b. 1963)
Page: dynamin


Page: E. coli
Escherichia coli
Page: early names for AIDS — gay cancer, gay pneumonia, GRID, 4H, KSOI, slim disease, etc.
The name "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" or "AIDS" was coined by the CDC in the summer of 1982. Up to that point (and in many places well after 1982) the disease was known by other names, largely due to outward-presending symptoms. This term indexes
Page: early theories of AIDS etiology
Page: East Africa (region)
East Africa consists of: Tanzania Kenya Uganda Rwanda Burundi Djibouti Eritreia Somalia Mozambique Madagascar Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe Sudan South Sudan As well as The island nations of Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Réunion, and Mayotte
Page: Ebola
Ebolavirus, Ebola virus disease, Ebola hemorrhagic fever
Page: education and early career
Page: EFdA (islatravir)
EFdA (islatravir) is a nucleoside analog that is being developed by Merck for implant-based HIV treatment.
Page: EFV (efavirenz)
EFV (efavirenz, Sustiva) is an NNRTI, and was approved by the FDA for use in 1998. It is sold as a triple combination with FTC (emtricitabine) and tenofovir as Atripla and Viraday.
Page: EGFR
Page: Elion, Gertrude B. "Trudy" (1918–1999)
American biochemist and pharmacologist. Received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for the developing the principles behind rational drug design.
Page: ELISpot (enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot)
ELISpot is a quantitative immunostaining assay for measuring cytokine secretion of a single cell.
Page: elvitegravir (EVG)
Elvitegravir (EVG) is an integrase inhibitor developed by Gilead, and approved by the FDA in 2012. It is most commonly administered in combination with cobicistat, FTC (emtricitabine), and tenofovir, a combination that is sold as Stribild.
Page: Emory University, Emory University School of Medicine
Page: endangered species
Page: endogenous retrovirus (ERV)
endogenous retrovirus (ERV): a DNA sequence derived from a retrovirus (provirus) more or less permanently embedded in the host organism's genome.
Page: Engelman, Alan N.
Alan N. Engelman is an immunologist and virologist at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School.
Page: Engelman, Ed
Ed Engelman, immunologist at Stanford
Page: env
env, "envelope," encodes the proteins found on the surface of the virus. In HIV, env encodes the protein gp160, which is cleaved into gp120 and gp41, making up the envelope spike complex that binds to CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4.
Page: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
A common enzyme immunoassay used to detect a specific protein.
Page: Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS)
Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS): A CDC postdoctoral fellowship program in epidemiological field work. Fellows are "EIS officers" or "EIS fellows," and are first-line investigators to disease outbreak epicenters.
Page: epidemiology
Page: epistemic object becomes the technical object
This concept is taken from Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Toward a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesizing Proteins in the Test Tube (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997), to describe the process whereby an original, hypothetical object of inquiry (e.g.,
Page: Epstein, Michael Anthony "Tony" (b. 1921)
Michael Anthony "Tony " Epstein, b. 1921, British pathologist, discovered Epstein-Barr virus along with Yvonne Barr and Bert Achong.
Page: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Page: equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)
Page: ErbB
ErbB: a family of genes that encode membrane receptor tyrosine kinases, considered an oncogene.
Page: Estes, Jacob D.
Page: Ethiopia
Page: Europe, European Union
Page: European Medicines Agency (EMA)
Page: evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo)
Evolutionary developmental biology, or "evo-devo," is an area of biology that evaluates evolutionary history by comparing developmental processes and genetic control of those processes across a wide range of species.


Page: Fahey, John L. (1924–2014)
John Leslie Fahey, 1924–2014, physician and immunologist at UCLA. See R. P. Gale, “John Leslie Fahey 1924–2014,” Bone Marrow Transplantation 49, no. 12 (December 2014): 1453–54, doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.240
Page: Family Health International (FHI, FHI 360)
Family Health International, renamed "FHI 360" in 2011.
Page: FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)
Page: fear
This term indexes fear in general, but especially the fear and uncertainty associated with the many unknowns about AIDS in the early years of the HIV outbreak in the United States, leading to hospitals and physicians refusing treatment of AIDS patients. T
Page: Feinberg, Mark B.
Page: Feinstein, Dianne (b. 1933)
Dianne Feinstein, b. 1933, current senior US Senator from California, and former mayor of San Francisco from 1978–1988, during the outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Page: feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
Page: feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
feline leukemia virus (FeLV): retrovirus that causes leukemia in cats.
Page: feline sarcoma virus (FeSV)
Page: Fem-PrEP study (2009–2011)
FEM-PrEP was a Phase III clinical trial designed to assess the safety and effectiveness of a daily Truvada (FTC+tenofovir) for HIV prevention among women. The trial began in 2009 but was stopped in 2011 after low adherence. See Van Damme, Lut, Amy Corneli
Page: Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH)
Program run through the Ragon Institute, see 6.3 Bruce Walker — Role of T Cells in Controlling HIV Infection
Page: Feng, Yu
Page: Finzi, Diana
Director of the Basic Sciences Program (BSP) in the Division of AIDS (DAIDS), National Institutes of Allergy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Page: Fischl, Margaret A.
Page: Fisher, Amanda G.
Amanda G. "Mandy" Fisher is a British cell biologist at Imperial College London, and Director of the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences.
Page: Flavivirus
Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes West Nile virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus.
Page: Fleming, Alexander (1881–1955)
Alexander Fleming, 1881–1955, Scottish physician and scientist, discovered lysozyme and penicillin. Received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945.
Page: flow cytometry (FCM); cell sorting
Flow cytometry is a set of automated technologies to count and sort cells, by measuring the physical and chemical characteristics of fairly large numbers of cells suspended in a fluid medium. A flow cytometer directs a flow of cells through a narrow tube,
Page: fludarabine (Fludara)
An early nucleoside used in cancer chemotherapy. Fludarabine is a purine analog.
Page: fluorescent tag (fluorophore, fluorescent label, fluorescent probe, immunofluorescence)
Labeling techniques used for labeling in light microscopy.
Page: focus assay for Rous sarcoma virus
focus assay for Rous sarcoma virus: developed by Howard Temin and Harry Rubin in 1958, the focus assay permitted quantitative study of RSV in a petri dish, rather than in adult chicken tumors or chicken embryos. Howard M. Temin and Harry Rubin, “Character
Page: foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)
foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)
Page: foscarnet (phosphonomethanoic acid, Foscavir)
Foscarnet is an antiviral drug used to treat herpesvirus infections.
Page: Fox, Cecil H.
Page: France
Page: Francis, Donald P. "Don" (b. 1942)
American epidemiologist, one of the first to suggest in 1981 that AIDS might be caused by a virus.
Page: Francis, Henry "Skip"
Page: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Page: Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR, NCI-Frederick)
Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR), formerly named the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center from its establishment in 1972 as part of Nixon's War on Cancer, and renamed the Frederick Cancer Research Center in 1981, locat
Page: freezer
Page: Frenkel, Lisa M.
Virologist and infectious disease physician at University of Washington
Page: Fresh Air (radio talk show)
WHYY talk show hosted by Terry Gross (b. 1951) and Dave Davies (b. 1953)
Page: Frieden, Thomas R.
Director of the CDC from 2009–2017 under President Barack Obama.
Page: Friedland, Gerald
Epidemiologist and infectious disease expert at Yale.
Page: Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.
Alvin E. Friedman-Kien, dermatologist at Bellevue Hospital, one of the first physicians in New York to notice and medically document the AIDS outbreak in 1981.
Page: FTC (emtricitabine, Emtriva, Coviracil)
FTC (emtricitabine), 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'thiacytidine, a nucleoside analogue of cytidine and a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. FTC is sold in combination with tenofovir as Truvada to treat HIV.
Page: funding and grants
Page: Furman, Phillip A.
Page: Fv1 restriction factor
Fv1 is a restriction factor in mice, and attacks the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Fv1 was the first restriction factor discovered. It is expressed by the Fv1 gene, which appears to be derived from a fragment of a retroviral genome.


Page: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)
The GPCRs are a large family of cell surface receptors that includes CCR5 (C-C chemokine receptor type 5).
Page: Gabon
Page: gag
gag: group-specific antigen. In HIV, gag encodes the Gag polyproteins: MA (matrix protein, p17); CA (capsid protein, p24); SP1 (spacer peptide 1, p2); NC (nucleocapsid protein, p7); SP2 (spacer peptide 2, p1) and P6 protein.
Page: Gajdusek, Daniel Carleton (1923–2008)
Daniel Carleton Gasjdusek (1923–2008), American physician and researcher who identified the first human prion disease kuru, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976.
Page: ganciclovir
Ganciclovir is a nucleoside analogue of guanosine developed in 1980, and is an antiviral used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV). Valganciclovir is the ganciclovir prodrug used since 2001.
Page: Gao, Feng
Feng Gao is a geneticist and virologist currently at Duke University.
Page: Garcia-Martinez, J. Victor
J. Victor Garcia-Martinez, infectious disease expert at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.
Page: Gardener, Murray
Pathologist at UC Davis School of Medicine.
Page: Gartner, Suzanne
Page: gas chromatography
Page: Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC)
Page: gay men, gay community
This term indexes gay/homosexual men and the LGBT community. The term "gay community" was used several times during the conference, but the more expansive term "LGBT community" was not, therefore this field directly indexes "gay community."
Page: Gayle, Helene (b. 1955)
Former head of the Gates Foundation's HIV, TB, and reproductive health program.
Page: Gazdar, Adi F. (1937–2018)
Pathologist and oncologist at NCI and UT Southwestern Medical Center, recognized as one of the first "molecular pathologists" working in oncology.
Page: Gelmann, Edward P.
Page: gene mapping
Page: generic drug
Page: Genes
Note: genes are usually specified in italics, while their corresponding proteins are specified in roman. For example, the tat gene encodes the Tat or "Trans-Activator of Transcription" protein. Proteins are indexed under Tools, methods, materials, drugs,
Page: Genes & Development (journal)
Page: genome-wide association study
Page: Ghana
Page: gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV)
Page: Gilead
Page: Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Page: global research
Page: gloves
Page: Gludish, David W.
Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Page: Gold, Moses O.
Page: Gombe Stream National Park
Gombe Stream National Park is located in Western Tanzania, and one of the smallest national parks in Tanzania.
Page: Gonda, Matthew A.
Matthew A. "Matt" Gonda.
Page: Gonder, Mary Katherine
Mary Katherine "Katie" Gonder, Drexel University
Page: Gonsalves, Gregg (b. 1963)
Co-founder of TAG with Mark Harrington.
Page: Goodall, Jane M. (b. 1934)
Jane M. Goodall (b. 1934), primatologist and anthropologist.
Page: Goosby, Eric (b. 1952)
Page: gorilla
There are two species of gorilla. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are currently the most numerous, and inhabit the forests of west-central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria). The larger Eas
Page: Goudsmit, Jaap (b. 1951)
Dutch immunologist and virologist.
Page: Gould, Daniel H.
Daniel H. "Dan" Gould, veterinary pathologist at Colorado State University. 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa notes that Gould discovered simian sarcoma virus (SSV) when he was a graduate student of Gordon Theilen and Tom Kawaka
Page: Goulder, Philip
Philip Goulder is an immunologist at Oxford University.
Page: gp120
Envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope, and is encoded by the env gene. gp120 is the larger of two parts of the HIV envelope spike complex, along with gp41. gp120 was discovered by Professors Tun-Hou Lee a
Page: gp41
Part of the HIV envelope spike complex, along with gp120. It is encoded by the HIV env gene.
Page: GPS (Global Positioning System, satellite navigation)
Page: graduate training and early career in science
Page: Grady Memorial Hospital
Page: Grandgenett, Duane P.
Page: Green, Monica H.
Historian of medicine and gender, with expertise in the history of the Black Death.
Page: Griffiths, David J.
Page: grind and find
Page: Grmek, Mirko (1924–2000)
Croatian-French historian of medicine, author of one of the first histories of the AIDS epidemic (1989)
Page: Gross, Ludwik (1904–1999)
Ludwik Gross, 1904–1999. Polish-American virologist, discovered murine leukmia virus and mouse polyomavirus tumor viruses.
Page: GST (glutathione S-transferase), GST pull-down assay
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are common metabolic enzymes that metabolize toxic compounds and have roles in cell signaling. The DNA code for GST can be combined with that of another protein to create a recombinant fusion protein that can easily be is
Page: Guatelli, John
UC San Diego
Page: Gust, Ian (b. 1941)
Australian virologist


Page: H9 (HuT 78) cell line
The H9 cell line is a human T lymphocyte cell line derived from cells from a 53 year old Caucasian lymphoma patient. H9 is a clonal derivative of HuT 78. H9 is highly permissive for HIV-1 replication, and is therefore commonly used in HIV research.
Page: Haapala, Daniel K.
Page: habituation
In the context of wild animal research refers to the, a "habituated" population of animals is one that is still wild, but is accustomed enough to the presence of humans that they do not flee, attack, or alter their behavior around human observers.
Page: Haiti
Page: Hall, Alan (1952–2015)
Alan Hall, 1952–2015, cell biologist
Page: Haller, Otto (b. 1945)
Swiss-German virologist
Page: Hallett, Timothy B.
Page: Hamilton, John D.
Virologist and infectious disease specialist at Duke University School of Medicine.
Page: Hamilton, William D. (1936–2000)
Bill Hamilton (1936–2000), British evolutionary biologist.
Page: Hanafusa, Hidesaburo (花房 秀三郎, 1929–2009)
Hidesaburo "Saburo" Hanafusa, 花房 秀三郎, 1929–2009, Japanese virologist.
Page: Hardy, William D., Jr.
William D. "Bill" Hardy Jr., veterinary pathologist.
Page: Harper, Mary E.
Page: Harrington, William J., Jr.
Page: Harris, Reuben S.
Page: Harvard University, Harvard Medical School
Page: Haseltine, William A. (b. 1944)
William A. "Bill" Haseltine, b. 1944, known for work on HIV/AIDS and the HGP.
Page: Haverkos, Harry W.
Infectious disease specialist and epidemiologist, one of the first investigators to track the spread of the AIDS epidemic in the early-1980s.
Page: Hayami, Masanori (速水 正憲)
Masanori Hayami is a geneticist and animal virologist at the Institute for Virus Research at Kyoto University.
Page: Heckler, Margaret M. (1931–2018)
Margaret M. Heckler was Secretary of Health and Human Services from 1983 to 1985 during the Reagan administration. She has been widely criticized for mismanaging the federal response to the AIDS pandemic during her brief tenure.
Page: HeLa
The HeLa cell line is the oldest and most commonly used immortalized human cell line. It was infamously derived from a biopsied tumor from Henrietta Lacks (1920–1951), who did not give a modern form of informed consent to its use in research; however, at
Page: hematology
hematology, also spelled haematology
Page: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)
Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. Also referred to as a bone marrow transplant.
Page: hemophilia
hemophilia, also haemophilia, a genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots Hemophilia A was extremely difficult to treat until factor VIII derived from blood plasma became available in the 1960s. Contamination of HIV in the globa
Page: Heneine, Walid
Virologist at CDC.
Page: Henrich, Timothy J.
Page: Henrickson, Roy
Veterinarian and former head of animal care facilities at UC Berkeley.
Page: hepatitis
Page: Hermans, Paul E.
Page: herpesviruses
Herpesviridae is a large family of animal DNA viruses. Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) also known as human alphaherpesviruses 1 and 2, are very common in humans. HSV-1 generally causes cold sores, HSV-2 generally causes genital herpes. Ot
Page: Herrmann, Christine H.
Page: heterosexual transmission of HIV
See also mother-to-child transmission of HIV and HIV/AIDS in women
Page: highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy, or "HAART" is a treatment regimen of usually three or more antiretroviral drugs. It is less frequently called combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Page: Hill, Miroslav (b. 1929)
Miroslav Hill, b. 1929, Czech-French molecular biologist
Page: Hilleman, Maurice (1919–2005)
Microbiologist and vaccinologist, inventor of vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, and pneumonia.
Page: Hillová, Jana
Page: Hinuma, Yorio
Page: Hirsch, Martin S.
Marty Hirsch is a virologist and infectious disease specialist at Harvard Medical School.
Page: Hirsch, Vanessa M.
Vanessa M. Hirsch is a veterinary pathologist and virologist at NIAID, formerly at Georgetown University.
Page: histone
Page: histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors)
Page: History and sociology of science, medicine, and health care
Page: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN)
Page: HIV test
2 incomplete check to see if this term should be the catch-all term, or if different testing techniques should be listed seperately or as children to this term
Page: HIV vaccine
Page: HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN)
Page: HIV-1 Bru strain
HIV-1 Bru was isolated from patient BRU, and was initially identified as LAV in 1983 by Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and her team at the Pasteur Institute.
Page: HIV-1 Lai strain
The HIV-1 Lai (or HIV-1 LAI) strain was taken from a patient named "Lai" in 1983. This strain contaminated another virus isolate ("Bru") being studied in the early years of the pandemic in 1983/1984, and resulted in a major dispute between the team at the
Page: HIV-1 MN strain
HIV-1 MN (pronounced "min") is a strain of HIV originally taken from a patient M.N. in 1984. The MN strain is the most representative strain in the US epidemic, and this strain is most commonly used in HIV vaccine research.
Recent space activity Space contributors
Page: HIV/AIDS denialism
HIV/AIDS denialism: refusal to accept that HIV causes AIDS, or that HIV or AIDS exist.
Page: HIV/AIDS in women
1 incomplete Try to determine later what the search term ought to be.
Home page: HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future — Annotated Transcripts
October 2016 @ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Page: HIV/AIDS stigma
HIV/AIDS stigma: this term refers to the lasting discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS related to perceptions of social groups, lifestyle, as well as continuing misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. This term overlaps with, but is distinct fro
Page: Holland, Eric C.
Page: Holmes, King K.
Emeritus prof. at University of Washington Dept. of Global Health.
Page: Holub, Miroslav (1923–1998)
Czech immunologist and poet.
Page: Holý, Antonín (1936–2012)
Czech chemist, former collaborator of Erik De Clercq (b. 1941) and expert in the synthesis of nucleoside analogues.
Page: homophobia
Page: Hooper, Edward (b. 1951)
Proponent of the theory that the polio vaccination campaign in Africa created the conditions for the zoonotic jump of SIV into humans.
Page: horse
Page: Housing Works
Housing Works is a New York-based organization dedicated to assisting homeless people with HIV/AIDS, founded in 1990 as an offshoot of ACT UP.
Page: Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)
Page: HPA-23 (ammonium tungstate)
An early antiretroviral drug. In 1984 HPA-23 was made available in France to slow or stop HIV infection, but by 1986 it was broadly recognized as ineffective and was abandoned.
Page: HPTN Study 052 (2005–2015)
HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) Study 052, 2005–2015, study of treatment-as-prevention (TasP).
Page: HPTN Study 069/ACTG A5305 (2012–2016)
HPTN Study 069 (ACTG A5305) was a Phase II trial of maraviroc (Selzentry, Celsentri) to prevent HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The trial was conducted in 2012–2014 and made public in 2016. See: Roy M. Gulick, Timothy J. Wilkin, Ying Q. Chen,
Page: HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus)
HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus), known earlier as human T-cell lymphoma virus. HTLV-I and HTLV-II are discussed in the conference. HTLV-III was another name for HIV until 1986; see discovery and naming of HIV/HTLV-III/LAV/ARV The HTLV-I was discovered b
Page: Huang, Alice S. (b. 1939, 黃詩厚)
Alice S. Huang, b. 1939, 黃詩厚. Collaborator and wife of David Baltimore.
Page: Hudson, Rock (1925–1985)
Page: Huebner, Robert J. (1914–1998)
Robert Joseph Huebner, American virologist, hypothesized the viral oncogene along with George Todaro, and a prominent figure in the Special Virus Cancer Program (SVCP).
Page: Hughes, Sally Smith
Historian of science at UC Berkeley
Page: Hughes, Stephen H.
Stephen H. "Steve" Hughes
Page: Human Genome Project (HGP, 1990–2003)
Page: human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system
Page: humanized mouse
a mouse carrying functioning human genes, cells, tissues, and/or organs
Page: Hunt, Ronald D.
Ronald D. Hunt, veterinary pathologist, long time director of the New England Regional Primate Center.
Page: HuT-102 cell line
The HuT-102 cell line is an immortalized line of cutaneous T lymphocytes, derived from cells taken from a 26 year old Black male lymphoma patient.
Page: hypothesis


Page: IAVI (International AIDS Vaccine Initiative)
Page: IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Page: iceberg of disease
Also known as the disease iceberg. Metaphorically, the "tip of the iceberg" represents known symptomatic or diagnosed cases, while the much larger, submerged part of the iceberg represents presymptomatic and asymptomatic carriers of the disease.
Page: Iceland
Page: iconoclasm in science
Both scientists and their ideas have often been described as "heretical," "before their time," or "rebellious" against a status quo. However, it is impossible to attach a philosophically and historically precise definition to these terms: since Thomas Kuh
Page: Idenix Pharmaceuticals
Page: idoxuridine (5-iododeoxyuridine)
Idoxuridine (5'-iododeoxyuridine) is a nucleoside analogue and an anti-herpes antiviral drug. It was developed by William H. Prusoff in the 1950s, and became the first FDA approved antiviral drug. Before the success of idoxuridine it was widely assumed th
Page: Iliffe, John
Page: immunology
Page: immunosuppression, immunosuppressive drugs
Page: Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF)
Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF), London
Page: Imperial College London
Page: implants, drug delivery implants, implantable antiretroviral therapy
Page: in situ hybridization (ISH)
A technique using a labeled DNA or RNA probe to localize a specific DNA or RNA strand within a tissue, or "in situ" (in place, as opposed to in vitro).
Page: in vitro vs. in vivo
In vitro studies—Latin for "in the glass"—are conducted on tissues, cells, or other biological extracts outside their normal biological context, such as in a test tube. The counterpart, in vivo studies—Latin for "within the living"—are conduced within the
Page: incubation period
Page: Index to HIV/AIDS Annotated Transcripts
Page: India
Page: indinavir (IDV, Crixivan)
Indinavir is a protease inhibitor made by Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck Sharp & Dohme), used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Page: Indonesia
Page: infectious disease (medical specialty)
Page: influenza
Page: influenza pandemic of 1918–1920 (Spanish flu)
Page: information, genetic
genetic information
Page: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)
The Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) is a French governmental institute, headquartered in Marseille and operating out of Montpellier and Bondy.
Page: Institute of Human Virology, UMD
Page: Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp
The Institute of Tropical Medicine, officially the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine (Dutch: Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskun, French: Institut de médecine tropicale)
Page: integrase
retroviral integrase (IN): enzyme that integrates a retrovirus' genome into the host cell genome, resulting in a provirus.
Page: integrase inhibitors
Page: integrin
The integrins are transmembrane receptors that receive signals and activate cellular transduction pathways.
Page: intensive care unit (ICU)
Page: interferons
The interferons are signaling proteins (cytokines) made by many cells in response to viral infection.
Page: interleukins
The interleukins are a diverse family of signaling proteins secreted primarily by white blood cells. Interleukin 2 stiumlates the growth of T cells, and was discovered by Bob Gallo and others in 1976–77.
Page: internal medicine
Page: International AIDS Society (IAS)
The world's larges association of HIV/AIDS researchers, physicians, and other professionals.
Page: International Partnership for Microbicides
Founded in 2002.
Page: internet
Page: Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC)
Page: intravenous drug use
Page: Intrexon Corporation
American biotech company. Renamed Precigen in 2020.
Page: Introduction to the annotated transcripts and index of "HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future"
Welcome to the indexed and annotated transcripts of "HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future," Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, October 13–16, 2016. These transcripts are meant to accompany the video recordings of the conference, which can be found at http:
Page: Investigational New Drug (IND)
Page: IPERGAY Trial (2012–2015)
The IPERGAY trial examined pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using Truvada (combination tenofovir + FTC (emtricitabine) in men who have sex with men (MSM).
Page: iPrEx (Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición) study, 2007–2011
The iPrEx study (2007–2011) was the first phase III clinical trial to study the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). See Grant, Robert M., Javier R. Lama, Peter L. Anderson, Vanessa McMahan, Albert Y. Liu, Lorena Vargas, Pedro Goicochea, et
Page: IQ test
Page: Iran
Page: IRB (institutional review board)
Page: Iron Curtain
Page: Israel


Page: Jackson Laboratory
Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine
Page: Jackson, Michael (1958–2009)
Page: Jacobson, Leon O. (1911–1992)
American physician and medical researcher at the University of Chicago.
Page: Jaffe, Harold W.
Page: Janssen Pharmaceuticals
Janssen Pharmaceuticals is a Belgian pharmaceutical company owned by Johnson & Johnson.
Page: Japan
Page: Japan Tobacco (JT)
Japan Tobacco is a cigarette manufacturing company that also has pharmaceutical, agriculture, and engineering divisions.
Page: Jarrett, William (1928–2011)
William "Bill" Fleming Hoggan Jarrett, 1928–2011, British veterinary pathologist
Page: Jean, Wyclef (b. 1969)
Haitian musician and actor.
Page: Jin, Xia (金侠)
Virologist and immunologist at Institut Pasteur Shanghai
Page: Joglekar, Alok
Page: Johannesburg
Page: Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Page: Johnson & Johnson
Page: Johnson, Earvin "Magic" Jr. (b. 1959)
Page: Johnson, Philip R.
Scientist at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, formerly at Georgetown University.
Page: Johnson, Welkin E.
Page: Jones, Katherine A.
"Kathy" Jones, geneticist at the Salk Institute.
Page: Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS)
Page: JUN
The JUN gene encodes the c-Jun transcription factor, and is a human proto-oncogene.
Page: Jurassic Park (1993)
Film adaptation by Steven Spielberg.


Page: Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S.
A member of Bob Gallo's lab at NCI in the 1980s.
Page: Kanki, Phyllis
Phyllis Kanki, virologist at Harvard.
Page: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
Page: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or more formally Human gammaherpesvirus 8 or (HHV-8) causes Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Identified in 1994.
Page: Karn, Jonathan
Page: Karolinska Institute
Page: Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven
Page: Katzenstein, David A.
Page: Kaufman, Herbert E.
Page: Kawakami, Thomas G.
Page: Kearney, Mary F.
Senior scientist at FNLCR, NCI-Frederick.
Page: Keele, Brandon F.
Principal Scientist in the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research .
Page: Kemp, Sharon D.
Page: Kempf, Dale J.
Pharmaceutical chemist at Abbott Laboratories (AbbVie) and coinventor of the protease inhibitor.
Page: Kent State massacre, May 4, 1970
Kent State massacre: the killings of four and wounding of nine other unarmed Kent State University students in Kent, Ohio, by the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970, during a protest against the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia. https://en.wikip
Page: Kenya
Page: Kerr, Ian
Molecular biologist at Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London.
Page: Khan, Wasif N.
Immunologist at University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
Page: Kibale National Park, Uganda
Kibale National Park is located in Western Uganda.
Page: Kim, Jerome
Director General of the International Vaccine Institute
Page: kinases
A kinase is any enzyme that phosphorylates another molecule, or in other words catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule, such as a protein, lipid, or carbohydrate. Kinase activity is highly regulated in the cell. A prote
Page: King, Dannie H.
Page: King, Norval W.
Veterinary pathologist, formerly at New England Regional Primate Center.
Page: Kinsella, James (b. 1959)
Author of Covering the Plague (1989)
Page: Kinsolving, Lester (1927–2018)
Charles Lester Kinsolving, journalist and talk show host in Maryland, the first White House correspondent to ask the White House questions about the outbreak of AIDS in 1982.
Page: Kirchhoff, Frank
Virologist at the University of Ulm.
Page: Kisangani
Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) is a city in DR Congo, and is the Congo River's farthest navigable port upstream, making it a central city in the Congolese hinterland.
Page: kissing stem-loop
Page: Kitamura, Tsutomu
Page: Klatzmann, David
French immunologist.
Page: koala
Page: Koch, Ed (1924–2013)
Edward Irving Koch, mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989.
Page: Kolata, Gina (b. 1948)
Science journalist at the New York Times.
Page: Koprowski, Hilary (1916–2013)
Polish-American virologist and immunologist, developed the first live polio vaccine.
Page: Korber, Bette
Computational biologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Santa Fe Institute
Page: Korea
Page: Kotler, Donald P.
Page: Koup, Richard A.
Page: Kozak consensus sequence
The Kozak sequence, named after molecular biologist Marilyn Kozak (b. 1943), is the highly conserved mRNA motif that initiates protein translation. In the 5' to 3' direction, the sequence is gccgccRccAUGG, where R is either an adenine or guanine, and AUG
Page: Kramer, Larry (1935–2020)
Laurence David Kramer (1935–2020), playwright and writer, one of the key LGBT rights activists and AIDS activists in the 1970s, co-founder of the Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and ACT UP.
Page: Kreiss, Joan K.
Page: Kuritzkes, Daniel R.
Daniel R. Kuritzkes, virologist, Brigham & Women's Hospital Infectious Diseases
Page: KwaZulu-Natal
Page: Kwazulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV (2012–2016)
Kwazulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV was a joint initiative of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and KwaZulu-Natal University. In 2016, K-RITH merged with the African Centre for Population Health to form the Africa Health Research Insti
Page: Kwong, Peter D.
Structural biologist at NIAID.


Page: lab safety, biosafety levels, safety protocol
This term indexes laboratory safety in general, as well as lab safety protocols and biosafety level (BSL) classification.
Page: lab vs. clinic
This term indexes the tensions and productive collaborations between laboratory and clinical research settings, or laboratory and clinical personnel.
Page: lactobacillus
Page: lacZ
Page: Lancet (journal)
Page: Lane, H. Clifford
Page: Lange, Joep M. A. (1954–2014)
Page: lar gibbon (Hylobates lar)
lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) sometimes known as white-handed gibbon
Page: Larder, Brendan A.
Page: Laubenstein, Linda (1947–1992)
Linda Laubenstein, 1947–1992, physician and early HIV/AIDS researcher, one of the first New York physicians to observe and medically document the AIDS outbreak and to link it to Kaposi's sarcoma.
Page: Lawrence, Dale N.
Page: LdT (telbivudine)
LdT (telbivudine), an isomer of thymidine.
Page: Lebanon
Page: Leder, Philip (1934–2020)
Page: Leibowitch, Jacques (1942–2020)
French physician and pioneer of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Page: Lerner, Richard A. (b. 1938)
Richard A. Lerner is a chemist and was president of the Scripps Research Institute from its founding in 1991 until the end of 2011.
Page: Letvin, Norman L. (1949–2012)
Dr. Norman L. Letvin, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Chief of the Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Page: leukemia and lymphoma
Page: Levy, Jay A. (b. 1938)
Jay A. Levy, b. 1938, American research physician at UCSF. Twin brother of Stuart B. Levy. Lead one of the three groups to isolate and identify HIV in 1983–84, calling it ARV (AIDS-associated retrovirus). See discovery and naming of HIV/HTLV-III/LAV/ARV.
Page: Levy, Stuart B. (1938–2013)
Stuart B. Levy, 1938–2013, AIDS and cancer research physician, twin brother to Jay A. Levy.
Page: Lewin, Benjamin
Molecular biologist, founder of the journal Cell.
Page: Li, Hui
Page: Li, Yingying
Page: Liang, Chen
McGill University Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology
Page: Liautaud, Bernard
Page: limiting dilution
Limiting dilution analysis, or limiting dilution assay, or dilution cloning. An older technique of obtaining a monoclonal cell culture from a heterogenous population of cells by setting up a series of dilutions from cell suspensions.
Page: Lin, Tai-Shun (1935–1995)
Chemist at Yale, longtime collaborator of William H. Prusoff (1920–2011).
Page: Liotta, Dennis C.
Chemist at Emory University.
Page: Little, Susan J.
Page: Liu, Weimin
Senior researcher in the Hahn lab at Penn.
Page: Llinas, Elena
Page: Lo, Shyh-Ching
Shyh-Ching Lo, scientist at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology .
Page: London
Page: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Page: lopinavir
Protease inhibitor, patented in 1995 and approved in 2000.
Page: Los Alamos National Laboratory
Page: Los Angeles
Page: Louisiana State University
Page: LTR (long terminal repeat)
LTRs (long terminal repeats) are identical sequences of DNA of several hundred base pairs located at each end (the 5' end and the 3' end) of the viral genome. The structure of the LTRs facilitate the insertion of the viral genome into the host cell's geno
Page: luciferase
Bioluminescent protein widely used as a reporter gene in genetic engineering.
Page: lupus
Page: Lusso, Paolo
Chief, Viral Pathogenesis Section at NIAID.
Page: Lyles, Robert H.
Page: lymphadenopathy
Lymphadenopathy is an abnormal swelling of one or more lymph nodes. Localized lymphadenopathy means lymph node or gland swelling in a particular part of the body, generalized lymphadenopathy refers to lymph node swelling throughout the whole body. Lymphad
Page: lymphatic system (lymph, lymph nodes, etc.)
Page: lymphedema
Page: lymphocyte
One of the types of white blood cells. Includes T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. In this index T cells and B cells are not indexed as children.
Page: Lyumkis, Dmitry


Page: M'Boup, Souleymane (b. 1951)
Souleymane M'Boup, b. 1951, Senegalese microbiologist at the University of Dakar, one of the discoverers of HIV-2.
Page: macaque, rhesus macaque
Macaques are a genus of Old World monkeys that are native to Asia, North Africa, and Gibraltar; they have been introduced to the wild in other places by humans. The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is native in South Asia, East Asia, and the northern parts
Page: macrophage
Page: major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
Page: malaria, Plasmodium
Page: Malawi
Page: Malaysia
Page: Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (July 24, 2014)
Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur was shot down on July 24, 2014 by a Russian surface-to-air missile brigade supporting pro-Russian separatist Rebels in the Donetsk region of eastern Ukraine. Of the 298 passengers and crew who d
Page: Maldarelli, Frank
Head of the Clinical Retrovirology Section of the NIH.
Page: Malik, Harmit S.
Geneticist and evolutionary biologist at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
Page: Mandela, Nelson (1918–2015)
First post-Apartheid and first Black president of South Africa, 1991–1997.
Page: mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx)
Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are an Old World monkey, and the largest of the monkey species. They are descended from mangabeys, but were formerly thought to be related to baboons (Papio) because of their similar appearance. They are native to west-centra
Page: Mann, Jonathan M. (1947–1998)
Former administrator of the World Health Organization.
Page: Mansfield, Keith
Formerly at the New England Regional Primate Center.
Page: maraviroc (Selzentry, Celsentri)
Maraviroc (sold as Selzentry in the US and Celsentri in the EU) is a CCR5 receptor antagonist, approved for use in 2007.
Page: Margolis, David M.
Page: Markel, Howard (b. 1960)
Historian of medicine at University of Michigan.
Page: Markowitz, Martin
Marty Markowitz, clinical director at Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center. (Not to be confused with the former New York State Senator and Brooklyn borough president Marty Markowitz)
Page: Marquez, Victor E.
Medicinal chemist at National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Page: Marshall, Chris (1949–2015)
Chris Marshall, 1949–2015, cell biologist.
Page: Marthas, Marta L.
Veterinary pathologist at UC Davis.
Page: Martin Delaney Collaboratory
Page: Martin, G. Steven
G. Steven "Steve" Martin, cell and molecular biologist at UC Berkeley.
Page: Martin, Malcolm A.
Retrovirologist at NIH.
Page: Marx, Jean L.
Jean L. Marx. Science journalist with Science who covered many of the key HIV/AIDS stories in the 1980s.
Page: Marx, Preston A.
Preston A. Marx, virologist and professor of tropical medicine at Tulane National Primate Research Center, formerly at the California National Primate Research Center.
Page: Mascola, John R.
Director of the NIH Vaccine Research Center (VRC).
Page: mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is a technique used to identify chemical substances.
Page: Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital, also known as the MGH or "Mass General"
Page: Masur, Henry
Henry Masur, immunologist and infectious disease specialist at NIH Clinical Center (NIH CC).
Page: Mathews, Michael B.
Page: Matthews, Thomas J.
Page: Mbeki, Thabo (b. 1942)
Thabo Mbeki (b. 1942) was the second post-apartheid president of South Africa, serving from 1999 to 2008. Mbeki was widely criticized for his HIV denialism and his policies preventing the distribution of antiretroviral drugs.
Page: McAllister, Robert M.
Page: McCormick, Joseph B. (b. 1942)
Page: McDougal, John Steven "Steve" (1945–2014)
Page: McGuigan, Chris (1958–2016)
Drug discovery chemist at Cardiff University.
Page: McKay, Richard A.
Historian of medicine at Cambridge University.
Page: measles
Page: mechanism
mechanism, biological mechanism
Page: Medicaid
US federal program that assists with medical costs for people with limited income.
Page: Medical Research Council (MRC)
The Medical Research Council coordinates and funds medical research in the UK.
Page: medical school, residency, and fellowship
This term indexes medical training.
Page: Meffre, Eric
Immunologist at Yale
Page: Melbourne; University of Melbourne; Royal Melbourne Hospital
Page: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK or MSKCC), cancer treatment and research institution in New York City. Formerly New York Cancer Hospital (1884–1934), Memorial Hospital and the Sloan Kettering Institute (1934–1980).
Page: memory
Page: mentoring
Page: Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck Sharp & Dohme)
Merck & Co., Inc. is an American pharmaceutical company. Merck & Co., Inc. was established in 1891 as the American subsidary of the German chemical and pharmaceutical company now known as Merck Group or Merck KGaA, until 1917 when the United States declar
Page: mericitabine
A nucleoside analog of cytidine that functions as an RNA polymerase inhibitor, and used to treat hepatitis C.
Page: Merigan, Thomas C. (b. 1934)
Page: MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome)
Page: Mexico
Page: MF59
MF59 is an adjuvant, originally designed to boost immune response in influenza vaccine.
Page: Miami
Page: mice
Page: Michael, Nelson L.
Page: microarray
Page: microbiota, microbiome
Microbiota are "ecological communities of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" while microbiomes are microbiota within a defined "theater of activity."
Page: microinjection
Page: microplate
Also called a microtiter plate, microwell plate, multiwell.
Page: microsatellite, microsatellite analysis, short tandem repeats (STRs)
A microsatellite is a short (2–6 base pairs), repetitive DNA sequence or motif, found in non-coding regions of the genome. Microsatellites are unstable across generations and are thus used in DNA fingerprinting.
Page: microscope — electron and optical
This term indexes both electron microscopy and optical microscopy, although the latter is only discussed in 1.5 John Coffin — The Origin of Molecular Retrovirology
Page: Mildvan, Donna
Beth Israel Hospital
Page: Military HIV Research Program (MHRP)
Page: military service and "Yellow Berets"
Many of the speakers in this conference mention trying to avoid the draft and compulsory service during the Vietnam War. During the Vietnam War one of the ways for physicians and medical school students to avoid the draft was to join the US Public Health
Page: Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Page: Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota
Page: Minnesota
Page: MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Page: mitochondria
Page: Mitsuya, Hiroaki "Mitch" (b. 1950, 満屋 裕明)
Page: Mizutani, Satoshi
Postdoc at UW-Madison MacArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, co-author with Temin on the Nature 1970 article.
Page: MKL2
MKL2: encodes transcriptional control factors, and a proto-oncogene.
Page: MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Page: models (model systems, model organisms, modeling)
This term indexes discussions of scientific models generally, including model systems, model organisms, and epidemiological modeling. The term "model" is used very broadly, often overlapping with "exemplar," "hypothesis," "analogy," "stand-in," and "schem
Page: Moeller, Andrew
Microbiologist and evolutionary biologist at Cornell.
Page: Mogae, Festus G. (b. 1939)
Festus Gontebanye Mogae, b. 1939, President of Botswana from 1998 to 2008.
Page: Moldow, Charles F.
Charles F. "Charlie" Moldow, hematologist.
Page: molecular clock
Also called an evolutionary clock, this uses the predictable and calibrated mutation rate of DNA and other sequenceable biomolecules to date the divergence of two different evolutionary lineages.
Page: molecular cloning
molecular cloning: the suite of methods used to assemble recombinant DNA and insert it into a host cell or organism for replication
Page: monoclonal antibody
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells, which are all clones belonging to a unique parent cell. They can be produced industrially in culture, or using genetically modified yeast by cloning immunoglobulin gene segments
Page: monocyte
White blood cell that originates in bone marrow and differentiates into macrophages and dendritic cells.
Page: Montagnier, Luc (b. 1932)
Luc Montagnier, b. 1932. Leader of the group at the Pasteur Institute that included Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, the first group to isolate and identify HIV as the cause of AIDS. Joint recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with B
Page: Moore, John P.
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University
Page: Morgan, W. Meade
Page: morphine
Page: mosquito
Page: Moss, Bernard (b. 1937)
Bernard Moss is a virologist at NIAID.
Page: mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Page: motorcycle
Page: Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
Mount Sinai Hospital, Manhattan, New York. One of the oldest and largest teaching hospitals in the United States. Founded in 1852 as the Jews' Hospital, it was renamed Mount Sinai at the turn of the 20th century.
Page: Mount Vernon, Washington
City on the Skagit River north of Seattle.
Page: mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)
Page: Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel (b. 1947)
Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole is a Cameroonian dermatologist and virologist, and is the director of PRECISA.
Page: MSM (men who have sex with men)
Page: Muesing, Mark A. (1953–2017)
Molecular biologist and virologist at Rockefeller University.
Page: Mulago National Specialised Hospital (Mulago Hospital)
Mulago National Specialised Hospital, also known as Mulago National Referral Hospital, or just "Mulago Hospital," is the teaching hospital Makerere University College of Health Sciences, in Kampala, Uganda. Mulago Hill is the home of the larger Mulago Hos
Page: Mullis, Kary (1944–2019)
American biochemist, inventor of PCR, for which he shared the 1993 Nobel Prize, and a prominent HIV/AIDS denialist.
Page: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS, 1984–2019)
The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) was a study of over 6,000 men in the United States, sited in Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh, conducted from 1984 to 2019. MACS was led in Los Angeles by Roger Detels and Otoniel Martinez-Maza; in C
Page: murine leukemia virus (MLV)
murine leukemia virus (MLV): retrovirus that causes cancer in mice.
Page: Murphy, Philip M.
Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology at NIAID.
Page: Muyembe, Jean-Jacques
Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum is a Congolese microbiologist and General Director of the Institut National pour la Recherche Biomedicale.
Page: Muñoz, Alvaro
Epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins.
Page: MX1
Interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1 was the first human restriction factor protein discovered, by Peter Staeheli, Otto Haller, and Charles Weissmann in 1986.
Page: MX2
MX2 or "Interferon-induced GTP-binding protein MX2/MXB" is human protein is part of the GTPase family and appears to have antiviral properties against HIV and herpesviruses.
Page: MxA (human myxovirus resistance protein 1)
Page: Myc
myc: a family of regulatory genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.
Page: mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT)
Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), a technique for rapidly detecting the presence and activity of mycobacteria such as TB, using fluorescent markers.
Page: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI)
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI), also known as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, is a rare respiratory disease. MAI was common in late-stage AIDS patients until the advent of HAART.
Page: mycoplasma
Mycoplasma is a genus of extremely small bacteria that lack cell walls. They were briefly thought to be either a cause or a contributing factor of AIDS.
Page: Myers, Gerry
Page: Mölling, Karin (b. 1943)
Karin Mölling, b. 1943, also spelled "Moelling" in the English language literature. German retrovirologist, discovered retroviral RHase H.


Page: Nabel, Gary J.
Chief Scientific Officer and Senior Vice President at Sanofi.
Page: Nahmias, André
Page: Nanban trade (viagem do Japão)
Nanban trade, (南蛮貿易, Nanban bōeki, "Southern barbarian trade"). Period of trade with Japan by Portuguese and Dutch merchants and missionaries, typically dated 1543–1616. See
Page: Nathanson, Neal
Virologist and physician, emeritus at University of Pennsylvania, was director of the NIH Office of AIDS Research from 1998–2000.
Page: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Page: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Page: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Institutes of Health (NIH) The NIH is composed of 27 separate institutes and centers, which include:
Page: National Science Foundation (NSF)
Page: natural selection, evolutionary selection, evolutionary fitness
This item indexes most evolutionary biology terms.
Page: Nature (journal)
Page: Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.
Page: nef
nef or "negative factor"
Page: nelfinavir (NFV)
Protease inhibitor, patented in 1992 and approved for use in 1997.
Page: Nerrienet, Eric
Institut Pasteur
Page: Neuberger, Michael (1953–2013)
British biochemist and immunologist.
Page: neurological symptoms of AIDS
Page: nevirapine (NVP, Viramune)
A non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), first approved for use in 1996.
Page: New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)
Page: New England Regional Primate Center
New England Regional Primate Center, part of Harvard Medical School and formerly one of the eight National Primate Research Centers. Closed in 2015 under troubling circumstances.
Page: New World monkeys (platyrrhini)
Page: New York
Page: New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center
New York Hospital is one of the oldest and largest hospitals in the United States, and has been affiliated with the Cornell University Medical College since 1912. The name of the Cornell medical school changed in 1998 to Weill Cornell Medicine. Also in 19
Page: New York Native (newspaper, 1980–1997)
Biweekly gay newspaper published 1980–1997. Was one of the first newspapers to report on the AIDS epidemic, but by the mid-1980s had become a major outlet for HIV/AIDS denialism and conspiracy theories.
Page: New York Times
Page: newborn screening
See also mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Page: Newsweek
Page: NF-κB
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production, and cellular apoptosis.
Page: Nigeria
Page: NIH Clinical Center (NIH CC)
Page: NIH Vaccine Research Center (VRC)
The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was originally a joint project between the NIAID, the National Cancer Institute, and the NIH Office of AIDS Research. The VRC is now housed entirely within
Page: Nixon, Richard M. (1913–1994)
Richard M. Nixon, 1913–1994, President of the United States 1969–1974.
Page: NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)
Page: non-human primates
This term indexes the general category of non-human primates (primates, monkeys, apes, etc.). Please refer to specific indexed genera and species.
Page: non-maleficence (primum non nocere)
"First, do no harm."
Page: non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are, as the name suggests, drugs that inhibit the function of viral reverse transcriptase, but not as nucleoside analogues. Instead, NNRTIs target features of reverse transcriptase other than domain
Page: Nonidet P-40 (NP-40)
Nonidet P-40: a nonionic, non-denaturing detergent, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, made by Shell Chemical Co., and later by Sigma-Aldrich, though it was taken off the market in the early-2000s. Nonidet P-40 was often abbreviated "NP-40," including by Sigm
Page: North America
Page: Northern blot
A technique to detect and analyze RNA in gel electrophoresis, developed in 1977. The name "Northern blot" is used by analogy to the "Southern blot," invented in 1975 and the original of the "blot" techniques used to analyze DNA in gels. The later "Western
Page: nuclear export signal
An amino acid sequence that targets a protein for export out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm.
Page: nuclear run-on assay
Page: nucleic acid hybridization
nucleic acid hybridization: the phenomenon where a single-stranded DNA or RNA is complemented to form double stranded DNA or RNA. The result can be: double-stranded DNA DNA-RNA hybrid double-stranded RNA
Page: nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleoside analogues, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucs
A nucleoside is a nucleobase—the basis of the A's, C's, G's, T's, and U's in DNA and RNA—bonded to a sugar, but without a phosphate group. The sugar is either ribose (the R in RNA) or 2'-deoxyribose (the D in DNA). These are nucleotides if one or more pho
Page: nude mouse
nude mouse: a strain of lab mouse with no thymus, and therefore an inhibited immune system, used for experiments with grafts, tumors, and immune deficiency. Discovered in 1962.
Page: Nunberg, Jack
Page: Nusse, Roeland (b. 1950)
Roeland "Roel" Nusse, b. 1950
Page: Nussenzweig, Michel C.
Page: Nyambi, Phillipe
NYU, collaborator with Susan Zolla-Pazner.
Page: NYU (New York University)


Page: O'Brien, William A.
Page: O'Reilly, Richard J.
Pediatrician at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York
Page: Obama, Barack (b. 1961)
Barack Obama, President of the United States 2009–2017.
Page: objectivity
Page: observation
Page: Ochman, Howard
Howard Ochman, microbiologist at UT Austin.
Page: Okoye, Afam
Page: Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae, Catarrhini)
Page: oncogene (onc)
oncogene: a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. v-onc: viral oncogene proto-oncogene: a normal gene that could become an oncogene due to mutations, typically encoding proteins that regulate cell division and differentiation
Page: oncology
Page: oncovirus
oncovirus, sometimes historically referred to as oncornaviruses. A virus that causes cancer.
Page: Operation INFEKTION (Jakob Segal, Operation DENVER)
Operation DENVER was a Soviet disinformation campaign run in the 1980s meant to spread the conspiracy theory that AIDS was caused by a US-made biological weapon. The East German geneticist Jakob Segal (1911–1995) was its primary frontman. The official Sta
Page: Oregon State University (OSU)
Page: Orenstein, Jan M.
Page: Organisms, species, genes, and diseases
Page: Ostertag, Wolfram (1937–2010)
German geneticist, who had possibly used AZT on murine leukemia virus (MLV) in the 1970s.
Page: Oxford University


Page: Palker, Thomas J.
Page: palliative care
Page: Palmer, Sarah
Centre for Virus Research at The Westmead Institute for Medical Research and Associate Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sydney, previously Virology Core Facility of the HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, US Na
Page: panobinostat
Page: Pantaleo, Giuseppe
Physician at NIAID.
Page: papillomavirus
Papillomaviridae is a family of non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause warts.
Page: Paradis Latin
The Paradis Latin is one of Paris' classical cabarets. In April 1984 it was famously one of the places where team members from the NCI and Pasteur Institute groups negotiated key differences over data and credit.
Page: parallel track policy
"The [FDA's] Parallel Track policy [57 FR 13250] permits wider access to promising new drugs for AIDS/HIV related diseases under a separate "expanded access" protocol that "parallels" the controlled clinical trials that are essential to establish the safe
Page: Paris
See also Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur), for which "Paris" is used as a metonym.
Page: parvovirus
Parvoviridae is a family of small, rugged, genetically-compact DNA viruses.
Page: Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur)
Page: Pasteur-Sanofi Diagnostics
Sanofi Pasteur Diagnostics was a branch of the French pharmaceutical company Sanofi that licensed and commercialized the diagnostic technologies created by the Pasteur Institute. The Sanofi portion of the arrangement was acquired by Beckman Instruments, I
Page: patents and intellectual property (IP)
Page: Pathak, Vinay K.
Senior investigator at NIH NCI and CCR.
Page: pathology (medical discipline)
Page: Paul, William E. (1936–2015)
William E. Paul (1936–2015), American immunologist at NIH and NIAID.
Page: PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
Page: Pedersen, Niels C.
Niels C. Pedersen, veterinary pathologist at UC Davis.
Page: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG)
Page: pediatrics, pediatric AIDS
Page: peer review
Page: People
Page: PEPFAR (President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief)
President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR, established by George W. Bush in 2003.
Page: Pepin, Jacques
Page: Persaud, Deborah
Page: personal protective equipment (PPE)
Page: Peru
Page: PET scan (positron emission tomography)
Page: Peterlin, B. Matija
Molecular biologist at UCSF.
Page: Petersen-Mahrt, Svend
Page: petri dish
Page: pets
A domestic or tamed animal kept for companionship or pleasure.
Page: Pfizer
Page: pharmaceutical industry
Page: Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop
Page: phylogenetic viral linkage analysis (phylogenetic network analysis)
Page: phylogenetics
Page: phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)
Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a legume protein. It is known for its ability to trigger T cell division, among other things.
Page: Picker, Louis
Immunologist and pathologist at Oregon Health and Sciences University (OHSU).
Page: Piot, Peter (b. 1949)
Belgian microbiologist
Page: Pitchenik, Arthur E.
Pulmonologist in Miami, Florida.
Page: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Page: Pizzo, Philip A.
Page: placebo
Page: Places, institutions, and programs
Note: Geographical places are listed in separate hierarchies from institutions. For example Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is indexed independently, rather than under "New York." Places in the United States are indexed independently, instead of under "Unit
Page: PLOS (journals)
Public Library of Science (PLOS) and the journals: PLOS Biology PLOS Computational Biology PLOS Genetics PLOS Medicine PLOS ONE PLOS Pathogens
Page: Plotkin, Stanley (b. 1932)
Page: PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Officially titled "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America."
Page: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii (also known as Pneumocystis carinii). In 1981 Michael Gottlieb reported 5 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), which is
Page: pol
pol: encodes viral enzymes. In HIV, pol encodes the enzymes reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), HIV protease (PR), and RNase H.
Page: polio, polio vaccine
Page: political correctness
Page: politics of scientific journal publishing
1 incomplete go over the name of this term "politics of scientific journal publishing" again later
Page: Pollock, Ludmilla "Mila"
Page: Popovic, Mikulas
Page: poppers (amyl nitrate)
Page: Portugal
Page: poverty
Page: PowerPoint
Page: Prague
Page: Prague Spring, 1968
Prague Spring, January 5, 1968 to August 22, 1968. Period of liberalization in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic that was crushed by Soviet and Warsaw Pact invasion on August 22.
Page: pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a single-tablet daily regimen of antiretrovirals for HIV-negative individuals who are at risk. To be distinguished from treatment-as-prevention (TasP).
Page: PRESICA project (Prevention of AIDS in Cameroon)
Page: prevention of HIV/AIDS
Page: Price, David H.
Molecular biologist at University of Iowa.
Page: primatology
Page: prions
Page: prodrug
A prodrug is a "compound that undergoes transformation before exhibiting pharmacological effects" (IUPAC). In other words, it is a reformulation of an existing drug that changes how and where the drug takes effect in the body. Valaciclovir, for example, i
Page: Project Inform
American HIV/AIDS advocacy and public education group, founded by Martin Delaney and others in 1984.
Page: Project SIDA
A joint research organization between Zaire, the US, and Belgium to study AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Page: protease
Search term returns both protease and protease inhibitors.
Page: protease inhibitors
Protease inhibitors are antiviral drugs that inhibit viral proteases, usually used in conjunction with a transcriptase inhibitor.
Page: prototype foamy virus (PFV)
prototype foamy virus (PFV) 1 incomplete Find out what prototype foamy virus (PFV) is!
Page: PROUD study (2012–2015)
The PROUD study (Nov 2012 to April 2014) was a UK-based trial of tenofovir+emtricitabine (Truvada) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Page: provirus
provirus: a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. Retroviruses like HIV integrate their genomes into their targeted host cells with the help of integrase.
Page: Prusoff, William H. (1920–2011)
Bill Prosoff, pharmacologist at Yale School of Medicine, discovered d4T's effectiveness against HIV.
Page: pseudotyping, pseudovirus
Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle, also called a pseudovirus. https://en.wikipedia.o
Page: public health
Page: Puerto Rico
Page: Pusey, Anne E.
Evolutionary anthropologist at Duke and director of the Jane Goodall Institute Research Center.
Page: Putin, Vladimir (b. 1952)
Former KGB officer and President of Russia since 2002.
Page: Putney, Scott D.


Page: quail
Page: quantitative viral outgrowth assay (Q-VOA)
Method for measuring the size of the latent HIV viral reservoir.
Page: Quinn, Thomas C.
Member of Project SIDA in Congo.


Page: rabbit
Page: radionuclide, radiolabeling, radioactive tracer
Page: Ragon Institute
Page: railroad
Page: Rajasuriar, Reena
Page: Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP)
Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), Rakai District in southern Uganda. Formerly known as the Rakai Project. RHSP was established in 1987 as a collaboration between researchers at Makerere, Columbia and John Hopkins Universities, NIAID, and the Internati
Page: raltegravir (RAL, Isentress)
An integrase inhibitor, approved in 2007.
Page: Rambaut, Andrew
British evolutionary biologist at the University of Edinburgh.
RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), also known as Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, is a human protein encoded by the CCL5 gene.
Page: Rappuoli, Rino (b. 1952)
Rino Rappouli is head of research and development at GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines.
Page: Ras
Ras: encodes p21/Ras protein, an important GTPase signalling protein. Overexpression of Ras can result in cancer, thus Ras is a proto-oncogene.
Page: rational drug design
Pioneered by Gertrude B. Elion (1918–1999), rational drug discovery is the process of finding new medications by targeting a specific biomolecule that is key to the disease process.
Page: Ratner, Lee
Molecular biologist and oncologist at WashU.
Page: Read-Connole, Elizabeth
Elizabeth "Betsy" Read-Connole, a technician in the Gallo lab in the 1980s.
Page: reading frame, open reading frame
A reading frame is a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets. An open reading frame is a reading frame that has the potential to be transcribed into mRNA and translated into a protein, starting with a start codon and ending with a stop codon. Viruses
Page: Reagan, Ronald (1911–2004)
Ronald Reagan, 1911–2004, President of the United States from 1981 to 1989, during the outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US. Widely criticized for his neglect of the AIDS outbreak, repeated demands to cut funding to the CDC and other public health
Page: red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus)
Red colobuses (Piliocolobus) are a genus Old World monkeys found across western, central, and eastern Africa. They are related to, but distinct from the black-and-white colobus monkeys. Red colobus monkeys are frequently hunted by chimpanzees.
Page: red-capped mangabey, collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus)
Page: Reitz, Marvin S.
Page: Remington, Jack S. (b. 1931)
Jack S. Remington, b. 1931, infectious disease expert at Stanford.
Page: Repligen
Pharmaceutical company based in Waltham, Massachusetts.
Page: reproducibility; experimental reproduction
This term indexes scientific reproducibility. (Note: there is no search function here because the vast majority of references to reproduction in this conference are to biological and viral reproduction, not the reproduction of scientific results.)
Page: Research Triangle Park (RTP), North Carolina
Page: restriction factor
restriction factor: a protein that limits or blocks viral spread
Page: retrovirus classification, subfamilies, and genera
Until the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970 (see 1.5 John Coffin — The Origin of Molecular Retrovirology), retroviruses were often referred to as C-type viruses, oncoviruses, oncornaviruses (onco+RNA), or RNA tumor viruses. As of 2018 the family
Page: rev
rev (regulator of expression of virion proteins), encodes the Rev protein.
Page: Rev response element (RRE)
Page: reverse transcriptase
Page: reverse transcriptase assay
Assays to detect reverse transcriptase and distinguish between reverse transcriptases.
Page: rex
rex: HTLV regulatory gene, located in the pX region.
Page: rhinovirus
rhinoviruses: non-enveloped RNA virus, one of the smallest viruses, and the cause of most common colds.
Page: ribonuclease (RNase); RNase H
ribonuclease, or for short RNase, a class of enzymes that cleaves RNA into smaller components RNase H (ribonuclease H, RNH) is a specific RNase that degrades the RNA portion of DNA-RNA hybrids. It is ubiquitous in nearly all living organisms. retroviral R
Page: rilpivirine (Edurant)
Page: RNA polymerase, RNA replicase
RNA polymerases produce strands of RNA. There are two types: DNA-directed RNA polymerase is ubiquitous in all life, and synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (or RNA replicase) synthesizes RNA from an RNA template. These are e
Page: RNA splicing
Page: RNAlater
Page: Robb, Merlin L.
Page: Robert-Guroff, Marjorie
Page: Robinson, Harriet
Harriet Robinson, Emory Vaccine Center
Page: Roche
F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Swiss pharmaceuticals and biomedical diagnostics company.
Page: Rockefeller University
Page: Rogers, Jeffrey
Jeffrey Rogers is a geneticist and primatologist at Baylor College of Medicine.
Page: Roizman, Bernard (b. 1929)
American virologist.
Page: Rosen, Craig A.
Page: Rosenblith, Walter A. (1913–2002)
Biophysicist at MIT
Page: rotavirus
Page: Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)
Rous sarcoma virus (RSV): causes sarcoma in chickens. Discovered by Peyton Rous in 1911, see Peyton Rous, “A Sarcoma of the Fowl Transmissible by an Agent Separable from the Tumor Cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 13, no. 4 (April 1, 1911): 397–411
Page: Rous, Francis Peyton (1879–1970)
Peyton Rous, 1879–1970. American virologist, discovered Rous sarcoma virus in 1911. Recipient of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1966.
Page: Rouzioux, Christine
Page: Royal Society
Page: Rozenbaum, Willy (b. 1945)
Willy Rozenbaum is a French physician.
Page: RTV (ritonavir, Norvir)
Ritonavir was originally formulated ca. 1996 as a protease inhibitor, although it is now used more frequently to inhibit enzymes that metabolizes other protease inhibitors.
Page: Rubin, Harry (1926–2020)
Page: Rubinstein, Arye
Chief of Allergy and Immunology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
Page: Russia, Soviet Union
Page: RV 144 (2003–2009)
RV 144 was an HIV vaccine trial conducted in Thailand from 2003–2006, with results published in 2009 (see Supachai Rerks-Ngarm et al., “Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to Prevent HIV-1 Infection in Thailand,” New England Journal of Medicine 361, no. 23
Page: Rwanda
Page: Ryan, John
Page: Ryder, Robin


Page: Saag, Michael S. (b. 1955)
HIV/AIDS researcher at University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)
Page: Safai, Bijan
Dermatologist, New York.
Page: Salahuddin, Syed Zaki
Page: Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Page: Salk, Jonas (1914–1995)
Page: SAMHD1
SAMHD1, SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1, is a human protein encoded in the SAMHD1 gene.
Page: San Diego Veterans Administration Medical Center
Page: San Francisco
Page: San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH)
San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH): the largest inpatient hospital in San Francisco, and serves as a teaching hospital for UCSF (University of California San Francisco).
Page: San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC)
Page: Sande, Merle (1939–2007)
Merle Sande, 1939–2007, leading American infectious disease expert.
Page: Sanders, Rogier W.
Page: Santiago, Mario L.
Infectious disease specialist at University of Colorado
Page: Saphire, Erica O.
Page: SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)
Page: Sawyer, Sara L.
Virologist at University of Colorado Boulder
Page: Saxinger, W. Carl
Page: scale, scaling
Page: Scearce, Richard
Page: Schief, William R.
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute
Page: Schooley, Robert T. "Chip" (b. 1949)
Page: Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860)
German idealist philosopher.
Page: Science (journal)
1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa 2.3 Mark Harrington — The Importance of Activism to the US Response
Page: science journalism
Page: scientific competition and collaboration
Page: scientific controversy and consensus
Page: scientific revolution
4 incomplete add descriptor to "scirev"
Page: scintillation counter
Page: Scolnick, Edward
Page: Scramble for Africa (1884–1914)
Page: scrapie
A fatal degenerative disease of the nervous system in goats and sheep. Thought to be caused by prion.
Page: Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is an independent biomedical research institute with campuses in San Diego and Jupiter, Florida. It is not associated with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego.
Page: Seattle
Page: Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI)
Page: Senegal
Page: sensitivity and specificity; false positive, false negative; biological specificity
In medical contexts, the concept "sensitivity and specificity" refers to the two ways of correctly identifying people who are ill: sensitivity: the proportion of positives that are correctly identified, e.g., that a diagnostic test is highly sensitive to
Page: sepharose
Page: September 11 attacks (9/11), 2001
2.6 Tony Fauci — 35 Years of HIV/AIDS: Science and Policy
Page: sequencing
Gene (DNA, RNA) sequencing
Page: SERINC protein family
Page: Serwadda, David M. (b. 1959)
David M. Serwadda, b. 1959, Ugandan physician and public health specialist, one of the earliest Ugandan physicians to notice the outbreak of "slim disease" in the early 1980s. Professor of Public Health, Makerere University School of Public Health.
Page: Session 10: What Have We Learned?
Panel participants: Warner Green (moderator), Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology/UCSF) Mila Pollock, Executive Director of Libraries and Archives, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Bob Gallo John Coffin Bruce Walker Warner: [00:00:00] —Is maybe to h
Page: Session 1: The Story of Animal Retroviruses
Chairs: Julie Overbaugh (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) and Steve Goff (HHMI Investigator, Columbia University)
Page: Session 2: The Pandemic Begins, Early Discoveries
Chairs: Michael Gottlieb (UCLA Medical Center) and Bruce Walker (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)
Page: Session 3: Antiretroviral Therapy
Chairs: Sandra Lehrman (Merck Research Labs) and John Mellors (University of Pittsburgh)
Page: Session 4: Human and Primate Retroviruses, the Origin of HIV
Chairs: Jeffrey Lifson (National Cancer Institute) and Ruth Ruprecht (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)
Page: Session 5: Molecular Biology of the Extraordinary Virus
Chairs: Paul Bieniasz (HHMI Investigator, The Rockefeller University) and Anna Marie Skalka (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple Health)
Page: Session 6: Immunology and Prevention
Chairs: Harriet Robinson (GeoVax Incorporated) and Dan Barouch (BIDMC/Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard) 6.1 Sharon Hillier — Development and Application of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
Page: Session 7: Prospects for an HIV Vaccine
Panel participants: Glenda Gray (b. 1962, moderator) is a South African AIDS expert and pediatrician, and a member of Treatment Action Campaign Genoveffa "Veffa" Francini is a hematologist and virologist at the National Cancer Institute Susan Zolla-Pazner
Page: Session 8: Pathogenesis and Prospects
Chairs: Alan Perelson (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Santa Fe Institute) and Ashley Haase (University of Minnesota) 8.1 John Mellors — MACS and Beyond: Epidemiology, Viremia and Pathogenesis
Page: Session 9: Public Event
Chairs: Anders Vahlne (Karolinska Institute) and Warner Greene (Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology/UCSF)
Page: Sewankambo, Nelson (b. 1952)
Nelson Sewankambo, b. 1952, also spelled Ssewankambo, Ugandan physician and medical researcher. One of the earliest Ugandan physicians to notice the outbreak of "slim disease" in Uganda in the early-1980s. Principal of Makerere University College of Healt
Page: sex workers
Page: sex, sexually transmitted infection (STI)
prior terms: sexually transmitted disease (STD), venereal disease (VD)
Page: Shandera, Wayne X.
Infectious disease expert, formerly in Los Angeles.
Page: Shapiro, Roger
Roger Shaprio, immunologist at Harvard.
Page: Sharp, Paul M. (b. 1957)
Paul M. Sharp is a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist at the University of Edinburgh.
Page: Sheehy, Ann M.
Page: sheep
sheep, indexed term also includes lamb, ram
Page: Shell Chemical Company
Shell Chemical Company, the petrochemicals arm of Royal Dutch Shell, now organized under the umbrella "Shell Chemicals."
Page: Shen, Lin
Rheumatologist at UCSF.
Page: Shilts, Randy (1951–1994)
San Francisco writer and journalist, biographer of Harvey Milk and the writer of And the Band Played On (1987).
Page: Siegal, Frederick
Frederick "Fred" Siegal, immunologist at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, one of the first physicians to identify and document the AIDS outbreak in New York in 1981.
Page: Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich was an American chemical and life sciences equipment supply company formed in 1975 through the merger of Sigma Chemical Company and Aldrich Chemical Company. In 2014 the Merck Group acquired Sigma-Aldrich and renamed it MilliporeSigma.
Page: Sigurðsson, Björn (1913–1959)
Björn Sigurðsson, 1913–1959, also spelled Sigurdsson.
Page: Silvestri, Guido
Scientist at Emory Vaccine Center.
Page: simian foamy virus (SFV)
Page: simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)
While there are only two major subtypes of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2), there are about 40 subtypes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), each associated with a particular species of non-human primate, and classified into five distinct groups. Group 1, which
Page: simian sarcoma virus (SSV)
simian sarcoma virus (SSV), also known as woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WSMV). According to 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa SSV was discovered by Daniel Gould, see: Theilen, Gordon H., Daniel Gould, M. Fowler, and Donald L. Dun
Page: simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)
A simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is a man-made virus that combines the genomes of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SHIVs are used to explore the biology of SIVs and HIVs, and for testing vaccines
Page: Simmonds, Peter
Page: simultaneous discovery (multiple discovery)
The historical phenomenon of multiple people discovering the same phenomenon, theory, or invention at the same time. For a classic exposition see Thomas S. Kuhn, "Energy Conservation as an Example of Simultaneous Discovery," in Critical Problems in the Hi
Page: site-directed mutagenesis
Page: slavery
Page: SMART (Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy) study, 2002–2006
SMART was an international study conducted in 2002–2006 that showed that continuous anti-retroviral therapy suppresses HIV infection much more than episodic ART.
Page: Snow, C. P. (1905–1980)
British novelist and physical chemist, conceptualized "the two cultures" problem.
Page: Snyder, Stanley P.
Stanley P. Snyder, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, discovered Feline Sarcoma Virus in 1969, see Stanley P. Snyder and Gordon H. Theilen, “Transmissible Feline Fibrosarcoma,” Nature 221, no. 5185 (March 1969): 1074–75, doi:10.1038/2211074a0 https:/
Page: sofosbuvir (Sovaldi)
Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analogue of cytidine and an antiviral drug mostly used to treat hepatitis C.
Page: Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre
Page: Sonigo, Pierre
Page: sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys)
The sooty mangabey (Cerocebus atys) is an Old World monkey native to present-day Senegal and the Ivory Coast. Until 2016 the species Cerocebus atys was divided into two subspecies, the sooty mangabey (formerly called Cerocebus atys atys) and the also incl
Page: South Africa
Page: South America
Page: Speakes, Larry (1939–2014)
White House press secretary from 1981 to 1987.
Page: Special Virus Cancer Program (SVCP), 1964–1978
Between 1964 and 1978 the US government established several lavishly funded programs to look for cancer viruses: 1964: Special Leukemia Virus Program (SLVP) begins 1968: Special Virus Cancer Program (SVCP) begins 1971: Richard Nixon declares the "War on C
Page: specimen exchange
3.3 Douglas Richman: Antiviral Drug Resistance and Combination ART 6.4 Barton Haynes — Development of HIV Vaccine: Steps and Missteps 6.5 Emilio Emini — Issues in HIV Vaccine Development: Will the Future be any Easier than the Past?
Page: Spiegelman, Sol (1914–1983)
Sol Spiegelman, 1914–1983, controversial American molecular biologist and oncovirus researcher.
Page: spillover, zoonotic disease, xenotropic virus
Spillover, zoonotic disease, and xenotropic disease are three related concepts. A spillover infection or spillover event occurs when a viral reservoir comes into contact with and spreads to a novel population. The reservoir and the novel population can be
Page: Spira, Thomas J.
Page: src
The gene src (pronounced "sark," and short for "sarcoma") is found in all animals, and plays an important role in regulating cell division, growth, differentiation, and development. However, src was originally discovered by Peter Vogt, Steve Martin, and P
Page: St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, New York
St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, New York. St. Luke's-Roosevelt was established in 1978, when St. Luke's hospital merged with Roosevelt Hospital. In 1997 St. Luke's Roosevelt entered into a partnership with Beth Israel Medical Center and New York Eye and Ea
Page: St. Olaf College
St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota
Page: Staeheli, Peter
Virologist at the University of Freiburg in Germany
Page: Staley, Peter (b. 1961)
Co-founder of Treatment Action Group (TAG).
Page: Stanford University, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center
Page: START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) study, 2011–2016
The START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) study, conducted in 2011–2016, showed the benefits of beginning anti-retroviral therapy at the moment of HIV diagnosis, rather than waiting for signs of the progression of HIV infection via CD4+/CD8
Page: statistical measurement
Page: Stein, Zena A.
South African-American epidemiologist and anti-apartheid activist.
Page: Steinman, Ralph M. (1943–2011)
2011 Nobel laureate for the discovery of dendritic cells.
Page: STEP study (2004–2011)
The STEP study was a phase 2 clinical trial (double blinded, randomized, placebo controlled) of the Merck MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef trivalent vaccine, conducted from 2004 to 2007, and with results published in 2011-2012. The trial was halted early once it
Page: Sterling Hall bombing, August 24, 1970
Sterling Hall bombing, August 24, 1970
Page: Stevenson, Mario
Mario Stevenson is Director of the Institute of AIDS and Emerging Infectious Diseases at University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
Page: Stillman, Bruce W.
Director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory since 1994
Page: STLV (Simian-T-lymphotropic virus)
Page: stock options
Page: Stonewall riots, 1969
Page: Stony Brook University, Renaissance School of Medicine
Officially the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY at Stony Brook)
Page: Storm the NIH, May 20, 1990
Page: Stoye, Jonathan P. (b. 1952)
Jonathan P. Stoye, b. 1952, virologist at the Francis Crick Institute, London
Page: Strebel, Klaus
Page: Stremlau, Matt
Page: structural biology
Page: structure-based drug design
Structure-based drug design uses knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the target molecule or enzyme complex. Drugs designed this way can either target the target molecule's active site, or target any other sites or surfaces of the molecule if p
Page: styles of scientific thought
Page: sucrose gradient centrifugation (differential centrifugation)
Page: suramin
Suramin is a medication used to treat African sleeping sickness and river blindness.
Page: surrogate marker (surrogate endpoint)
During a clinical trial, a surrogate marker or surrogate endpoint is an effect measured during the trial that is a substitute for the intended clinical outcome or clinical endpoint. This is an alternative to measuring the actual clinical outcome during th
Page: Svoboda, Jan (1934–2017, Czech virologist)
Jan Svoboda, 1934–2017, Czech virologist
Page: Swarthmore College
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Page: Sweden
Page: Switzerland


Page: T cells — CD4+ (helper T cell) and CD8+ (cytotoxic/killer T cell)
T cell (also T-cell). This term indexes T cells in general, as well as CD4+ cells (helper T or Th cells) and CD8+ cells (known as cytotoxic T cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, or killer T cell). HIV causes AIDS primarily
Page: tablet press
A machine that presses powder into tablets or pills.
Page: Tachibana, Nobuyoshi
Page: Taiwan
Page: Takatsuki, Kiyoshi
Page: Tanzania
Page: tat
tat, for "trans-activator," encodes the Tat regulatory transactivator protein that resulted in the increased transcription of all of the HIV genes.
Page: tax
tax: HTLV transactivation gene, located in the pX region
Page: Taylor, John M.
John M. Taylor, former postdoc in the Bishop-Varmus lab, now at Fox Chase Cancer Center.
Page: telbivudine (Sebivo, Tyzeka)
Telbivudine is an analogue of thymidine, and is used to treat hepatitis B.
Page: Temin, Howard M. (1934–1994)
Howard M. Temin, 1934–1994, virologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1975 for the discovery of reverse transcriptase, along with David Baltimore and Renato Dulbecco.
Page: TEMPRANO study (2008–2015)
The TEMPRANO study was conducted in the Ivory Coast in 2008–2015 to see whether very early ARV treatment (e.g., soon after diagnosis) would result in better AIDS outcomes. The results of TEMPRANO along with those of START (Strategic Timing of Antiretrovir
Page: tenofovir (TDF, Viread)
Tenofovir (tenofovir disproxil, sold as Viread) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, approved for use in 2001 to treat HIV. A related prodrug is tenofovir alafenamide, sold as Vemlidy, which is used to treat hepatitis B.
Page: tetherin
Page: Thailand
Page: Theories/concepts
Page: Thompson, Tommy (b. 1941)
Former governor of Wisconsin and Secretary of Health and Human Services.
Page: three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) 
The three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the part of a messenger RNA (mRNA) that comes after the stop codon. The 3'-UTR regulates gene expression in between gene transcription and translation, for example, influencing the stability or longevity of
Page: thymidine (deoxythymidine)
Page: thymidine kinase
Page: Time (magazine)
Page: TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha, cachexin)
A cytokine (small signaling protein) that regulates immune cells.
Page: tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
On the history of TMV as a model virus in early virology see: Angela N. H. Creager, The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930-1965 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). Angela N. H. Creager and Gregory J. Morgan, “Af
Page: Tobias, Randall L. "Randy" (b. 1942)
Page: Todaro, George J. (b. 1937)
George J. Todaro, b. 1937, developed the viral oncogene theory in 1969 with Robert J. Huebner.
Page: Todd, John A.
Page: Tools, materials, proteins, drugs, and treatments
Please note: The following HIV proteins are indexed by their Genes: Rev, Tat, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx. HIV drugs are categorized by type; e.g., AZT is listed under "nucleosides." Prodrugs (drugs that are reformulated to alter their bioavailability) are listed
Page: Tooze, John (b.1938)
John Tooze, b. 1938. From Wikipedia: “Beginning in 1966 Tooze had been writing under the byline 'our cell biology correspondent,' a regular weekly column for the 'news and views' section" in Nature.
Page: toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma gonii
toxoplasmosis is the disease caused by the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii.
Page: trans-activation response element (TAR)
The trans-activation response element (TAR) is a hairpin-shaped part of the HIV RNA genome that serves as a binding site for the tat protein, which increases the rate of gene expression and promotes HIV replication.
Page: transactivation
Transactivation is an increase in the regulated rate of gene expression.
Page: transcriptome
Page: transfection, transduction, viral vector
transfection: the process of artificially or experimentally introducing nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells, including by means of physical permeabilization, gene guns, calcium phosphate, charged polymers, or liposomes. transduction: the same, using a mod
Page: transformation (animal)
transformation in animal cells is the process by which an animal cell becomes cancerous
Page: transgender
Page: translational research
Page: transposase
A transposase is an enzyme that moves a transposon.
Page: transposon
transposon, also transposable element or "jumping gene," a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome
Page: Treatment Action Campaign (TAC)
Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), a South African advocacy and activist group, founded in 1998.
Page: Treatment Action Group (TAG)
Page: treatment-as-prevention (TasP)
treatment-as-prevention (TasP): a regimen of antiretrovirals for HIV-positive individuals with partner(s) who are HIV-negative. Studied under HTPN Study 052 (2005–2015). Not to be confused with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Page: Triangle Pharmaceuticals
Triangle Pharmaceuticals developed FTC (emtricitabine), and was acquired by Gilead in 2003.
Page: trifluorothymidine (TFT)
Trifluorothymidine is anti-herpesvirus drug developed in 1980. It is a nucleoside analogue to uracil.
Page: TRIM5α (TRIM5alpha)
TRIM5α (tripartite motif-containing protein 5-alpha) is a human retrovirus restriction factor, and provides innate defense against retroviruses.
Page: tropical disease, tropical medicine
Page: tropism
In general, a tropism is a biological phenomenon indicating a specific kind of response to specific kinds of stimuli. This includes host tropsim or viral tropism, which is the specific infectivity of a pathogen to a particular host cell or tissue type. Se
Page: Trump, Donald (b. 1946)
45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.
Page: Tsinghua University
Page: tuberculosis (TB)
Page: Tufts University
Page: Typhoid Mary (Mary Mallon, 1869–1938)


Page: UC Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley)
Page: UC Davis, UC Davis School of Medicine
University of California, Davis
Page: UC San Diego
Page: UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), UCLA School of Medicine, UCLA Medical Center
This term indexes: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) the UCLA School of Medicine, officially the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA since 2001, and the main teaching hospital of the UCLA School of Medicine, the UCLA Medical Center, officia
Page: UCSF (University of California San Francisco)
Page: Uganda
UNAIDS, or the full name Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The UNAIDS' "90-90-90" program has the goal of achieving, by 2020: 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status 90% of all people wi
Page: United Biomedical, Inc.
Page: United Kingdom, Great Britain
This term indexes the United Kingdom's main constituents: Great Britain, England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. (The search below does not search for "England" because of cross results with the more frequently occurring "New England.")
Page: United States
Page: University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)
Page: University of Cambridge
Page: University of Chicago
Page: University of Colorado Boulder
Page: University of Hong Kong
Page: University of Kansas
Page: University of KwaZulu-Natal, Nelson Mandela Medical School
Page: University of Maryland (UMD)
Page: University of Miami
Private research university in Coral Gables, Florida.
Page: University of Michigan, University of Michigan Medical School
Page: University of Pennsylvania (Penn) and Perelman School of Medicine
Page: University of Sheffield
Page: University of Virginia
Page: University of Wisconsin-Madison
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Page: US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)


Page: Vacca, Joseph P.
Page: vaccinia
Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large pox virus, formerly used as an active constituent of the smallpox vaccine.
Page: Vagelos, P. Roy (b. 1929)
Former president and CEO of Merck
Page: vagina
Page: vaginal ring
A vaginal ring is a polymer drug delivery device inserted into the vagina. The dapivirine (DPV) ring has been successfully used as method of HIV prevention in developing nations, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaginal rings are also used as a lon
Page: Valente, Susana
Page: valproic acid
Valproate (valproic acid, sodium valproate, etc.) is a widely used anti-epileptic medication.
Page: van Tongeren, Jacqueline (1949–2014)
Page: VaxGen (1995–2016)
VaxGen was a San Francisco based pharmaceutical company developing an HIV virus, founded in 1995. It was absorbed by diaDexus in 2010, which subsequently filed for bankruptcy in 2016.
Page: vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP)
Page: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE)
Page: Verghese, Abraham (b. 1955)
Ethiopian-American physician and writer.
Page: Verkoczy, Laurent
Page: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)
Page: veterinary medicine
Page: Vietnam War
Page: vif
vif encodes Vif or "Viral infectivity factor," which is required to synthesize HIV in lymphocytes and macrophages.
Page: viral load
viral load, viral burden viral titer: the quantity of virus in a given volume of fluid. More severe infections are associated with higher viral loads.
Page: viral load monitoring
See also viral load
Page: viral reservoir, viral latency, disease reservoir
Page: viremia
Viremia is when virus enters the bloodstream.
Page: virology
Page: Visna-maedi virus (VMV)
Visna-maedi virus (VMV), also known as Maedi-visna virus, Visna virus or simply "Visna." The first lentivirus to be characterized, see 1.4 Robin Weiss — Retrovirus History and Early Searches for Human Retroviruses.
Page: Vogt, Peter K. (b. 1932)
Peter K. Vogt, b. 1932, American molecular biologist and virologist.
Page: VOICE study (2009–2011)
The VOICE study ("Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic") study was a phase II clinical trial that examined the use of tenofovir vaginal gel. It began in 2009 and was stopped in 2011 because of low adherence. See Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Gita
Page: Voisset, Cécile
Page: vorinostat
Histone deacetylase
Page: vpr
vpr encodes Vpr, "lentivirus protein R."
Page: vpu
vpu encodes Virus protein U (Vpu)
Page: vpx
vpx is only found in the HIV-2 genome, and encodes for the protein Vpx.


Page: Wagner, Robert R. (1923–2001)
American virologist, former editor-in-chief of the Journal of Virology.
Page: Wain-Hobson, Simon
Page: Wainberg, Mark (1945–2017)
Canadian HIV/AIDS researcher and activist, identified and confirmed the anti-HIV properties of 3TC.
Page: Walter Reed Army Medical Center (1909–2011)
Known as the Walter Reed General Hospital from 1909 to 1951, and Walter Reed Army Medical Center from 1951 until its merger with the National Naval Medical Center in 2011. Walter Reed was closed in 2011 after accusations of neglect and a general policy of
Page: Wang, Chang Yi (王長怡, b. 1951)
Chang Yi Wang 王長怡, b. 1951, Taiwanese-American medicinal chemist and founder of United Biomedical Inc. (UBI)
Page: War on Cancer, 1971–
The phrase "war on cancer" was most famously coined by Richard Nixon during the debate and eventual passage of the National Cancer Act of 1971, and the so-called War on Cancer is often dated to the passage of the Act. The immense resources that the United
Page: Ward 86, SFGH
San Francisco General Hospital Ward 86: the first dedicated AIDS ward, established in 1983.
Page: Ward, Andrew B.
Page: Warren, Cody
University of Colorado Boulder BioFrontiers Institute.
Page: Washington Post
Page: Washington University in St. Louis
Page: Washington, D.C.
Page: Watts, Thomas A.
Member of the Worobey lab at ASU.
Page: Wegener's granulomatosis/granulomatosis with polyangiitis
A rare systematic disease of the immune system that causes the formation of granulomas and vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels).
Page: Weinberg, Robert Allan (b. 1942)
Robert Allan "Bob" Weinberg, b. 1942. Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at MIT.
Page: Weinhold, Kent J.
Page: Weissman, Drew
Page: Weissmann, Charles (b. 1931)
Swiss molecular biologist
Page: Wellcome Trust
London-based research foundation, formed from the profits and later the sale of Burroughs-Wellcome & Company, Glaxo Inc., GlaxoSmithKline in 1995.
Page: West Africa (region)
This indexes West Africa as a region, which generally includes the 16 countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Please refer to the above pages for sp
Page: West Nile virus, West Nile fever
West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus, and is related to Zika virus and dengue virus.
Page: Western blot
A protein analysis technique for gel electrophoresis, using an animal antibody to target a denatured protein. Invented in 1979. A Southern blot (named after Edwin Southern) is used to detect and analyze DNA, while a Northern blot is used to detect RNA and
Page: Whaling Museum, Cold Spring Harbor
Page: White, Gilbert, II
Page: White, Ryan (1971–1990)
American teenager, hemophiliac, who became a poster-child for young and heterosexual HIV/AIDS patients.
Page: Whitehead Institute
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
Page: Wigler, Michael H. (b. 1947)
Michael H. "Mike" Wigler, b. 1947, molecular biologist at CSHL.
Page: Wigzell, Hans
Page: William, Daniel C. (1946–2008)
Daniel C. William, 1946–2008, prominent gay physician in New York
Page: Wilson, Ian A.
Page: Wimmer, Eckard (b. 1936)
German American virologist.
Page: Wnt gene family (int1, Wingless, etc.)
The Wnt gene family encodes an evolutionarily conserved set of signal transduction proteins. The name Wnt arose from the history of the discovery that these genes are found across all animals. It was originally known as the Wingless (Wg) gene in Drosophil
Page: Wofsy, Constance (1943–1996)
Constance "Conny" Wofsy, 1943–1996, physician at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and co-founder of SFGH's Ward 86 with Paul Volberding, https://www.nyt
Page: Wolff, Sheldon M. (1930–1994)
Sheldon M. "Shelly" Wolff, 1930–1994. Was the director of the NIAID until 1984, when he was succeeded by Anthony Fauci.
Page: Wolinsky, Steven
Infectious disease expert at Northwestern University.
Page: women in science
See: 2.5 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi — Discovery of HIV 3.5 Daria Hazuda: Discovery and Development of Integrase Inhibitors 4.3 Beatrice Hahn — Apes to Humans: The Origin of HIV 8.5 Sharon Lewin — Research to a Cure: A Possible Goal? 9.3 Victoria Harden — Th
Page: Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology
Page: World AIDS Day (December 1)
Page: World Health Organization (WHO)
Page: Wrangham, Richard W. (b. 1948)
English primatologist and anthropologist
Page: Wu, Li
Li Wu is professor in the Department of Veterinary Biosciences at Ohio State University.
Page: Wyeth (1860–2009)
American pharmaceutical company. Known as John Wyeth and Brother from 1860 to 1931, American Home Products 1931–2002, and Wyeth from 2002–2009. In 2009 Wyeth merged with Pfizer.


Page: xenograft, xenotransplantation, heterologous transplant
the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another
Page: xenopus (clawed frog)
Xenopus is a genus of frogs that are commonly used in research in developmental biology.
Page: XMRV xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus


Page: Yale University, Yale School of Medicine
Page: Yamanaka, Shinya (山中 伸弥, b. 1962)
Japense stem cell researcher, recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be transformed back into stem cells.
Page: Yaoundé
Yaoundé is the capital city of Cameroon.
Page: Yarchoan, Robert (b. 1950)
Page: Yohei, Ito
Page: Yoshida, Mitsuaki (吉田 光昭, b. 1939)
Mitsuaki Yoshida (吉田 光昭, b. 1939), Japanese virologist. Sequenced the HTLV-I genome in 1983.
Page: Young, Steven D.
Page: Yu, Xianghui
Virologist at National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, formerly at Johns Hopkins University.


Page: Zagury, Daniel
Page: Zambia
Page: Zhang, Fujie (张福杰)
Infectious disease expert at Beijing University Medical School, and Director of Division of HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care, China CDC
Page: Zhang, Linqi (张林琦)
Virologist at Tsinghua University
Page: Zika
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single stranded RNA virus.
Page: Zimbabwe
Page: Zinkernagel, Rolf M. (b. 1944)
Page: zoos
Page: Zuckerberg, Mark, and Priscilla Chan
Mark Zuckerberg is founder and CEO of Facebook; together with his wife Priscilla Chan founded the philanthropic organization Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.
Page: Zuma, Jacob (b. 1942)
Jacob Zuma (b. 1942) was the fourth democratically elected president of South Africa, in office from 2009 to 2018, following the very brief interim presidency of Kgalema Motlanthe (2008–2009). After a long series of corruption scandals Zuma was recalled b
Page: zur Hausen, Harald (b. 1936)
German virologist.



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