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Michael Gottlieb: [00:00:00] My thanks to the organizers and my co-chair for conceiving the idea for this meeting. Bruce [Walker] has allowed me three minutes to say something at the start of this as a chair. It's a pleasure to see many of you who I know, and also to meet for the first time many of you who I know from your work and from the literature. Also to hear about what we heard last evening about the context of [00:00:30] HIV virology and the context of RNA tumor viruses over the years.

My story, very quickly, about the first patients is that in early 1981 at the UCLA Medical Center, we saw several unusual cases in young men, Pneumocystis pneumonia and other opportunistic infections. These illnesses were traumatic. That top slide is the MMWR from June 5th, 1981. (1) The cases [00:01:00] were dramatic and we saw them in rapid sequence and we were able to put it together. This was published in MMWR. We collaborated with CDC's EIS (Epidemic Intelligence Service) Officer in Los Angeles to make this report. These first patients certainly made an impression on all of us such that I remember their names. I remember what they looked like. I remember them in greater detail than patients I saw last week. 

Michael S. "Mike" Gottlieb, b. 1947, American physician and immunologist. Identified and treated the first five medically-known cases of AIDS in Los Angeles in 1981. 

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[00:01:30] Later that year, the second slide there, we published in the New England Journal of Medicine (2) and there were two other papers, one from Fred Siegal at Mount Sinai (3) and one from Henry Masur (4). In our own paper, we raised the question of whether there might be a virus involved and we picked on a DNA virus, CMV (cytomegalovirus), which turned out to be secondary to the immune deficiency. Of course, the infections we saw were associated with immunosuppression [00:02:00] and the near absence of CD4 cells. You can see on the bottom panel of an original Kodachrome slide.

The near absence of CD4 cells and was discovered in the laboratory of the late John Fahey (1924–2014), at UCLA. He had an NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) program project called CIRID, the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Immunologic Diseases. The timing was perfect for its involvement in the HIV [00:02:30] epidemic. Our first patients died within the first year. I had naively thought that it might be possible for their immune deficiency to recover. There was a great deal of mystery and fear as reflected in the headlines from the era.

Remarkably, the etiology of all this was found just two years after the description of the clinical syndrome [00:03:00], and that was through the work of Françoise [Barré-Sinoussi] and Bob [Gallo] and Jean-Claude Chermann (b. 1939) and Jay Levy (b. 1938). This is a slide from Francoise's paper (4), which you're going to see and hear about in just a bit, showing the spike in reverse transcript days activity at the lower left in her cultures. That's the beginning of the story as far as my early involvement. I will now welcome my good [00:03:30] friend and close colleague Paul Volberding to talk about his first patients.

[00:03:36] [END OF AUDIO]












1. Gottlieb, Michael S., Howard M. Schanker, Peng Thim Fan, Andrew Saxon, Joel D. Weisman, and I. Pozalski. “Pneumocystis Pneumonia—Los Angeles.” MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 30, no. 21 (June 5, 1981): 250–52.

2. Gottlieb, Michael S., Robert Schroff, Howard M. Schanker, Joel D. Weisman, Peng Thim Fan, Robert A. Wolf, and Andrew Saxon. “Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia and Mucosal Candidiasis in Previously Healthy Homosexual Men.” New England Journal of Medicine 305, no. 24 (December 10, 1981): 1425–31. doi:10.1056/NEJM198112103052401.

3. Siegal, Frederick P., Carlos Lopez, Glenn S. Hammer, Arthur E. Brown, Stephen J. Kornfeld, Jonathan Gold, Joseph Hassett, et al. “Severe Acquired Immunodeficiency in Male Homosexuals, Manifested by Chronic Perianal Ulcerative Herpes Simplex Lesions.” New England Journal of Medicine 305, no. 24 (December 10, 1981): 1439–44. doi:10.1056/NEJM198112103052403.

4. Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise, Jean-Claude Chermann, Françoise Rey, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, Sophie Chamaret, Jacqueline Gruest, Charles Dauguet, et al. “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).” Science 220, no. 4599 (May 20, 1983): 868–71. doi:10.1126/science.6189183.


Found 19 search result(s) for Gottlieb.

Page: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... yeastlike fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii (also known as Pneumocystis carinii). In 1981 Michael Gottlieb reported 5 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ...
Aug 18, 2020
Page: Session 2: The Pandemic Begins, Early Discoveries (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Chairs: Michael Gottlieb (UCLA Medical Center) and Bruce Walker (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard ...
Mar 18, 2021
Page: 2.1 Paul Volberding — The First Patients (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... have been said by any other clinician in those early days and Mike Gottlieb has given a nice start to that. This disease erupted in 1981 and 1982 in a way that we ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.2 James Curran — Deciphering the Epidemiology of AIDS (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Jim Curran: Thanks, Mike Gottlieb, and Bruce Walker, and all the organizers. It's nice to be here with all of the passionate, committed ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 3.1 Marty St. Clair: Discovery of AZT as the First Anti-HIV Drug (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Like I always like to start with, June 5th, 1981 when Michael Gottlieb reported an MMWR, those few cases of gay white men with pneumocystis pneumonia ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.6 Tony Fauci — 35 Years of HIV/AIDS: Science and Policy (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... first MMWR were five gay men from Los Angeles that Mike Gottlieb told you about. (13) I looked at it as somewhat of a curiosity, but it was the second 00 ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.3 Mark Harrington — The Importance of Activism to the US Response (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Q&A Citations Index Search Video   #polio, polio vaccine Mike Gottlieb (moderator): Thank you, Mark, it was excellent. Questions please, there are time for a couple. Robin ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... all go into 00:08:00 more detail on that—I think Mike Gottlieb is here and we'll hear a lot more about that from Jim Curran or Paul ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.5 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi — Discovery of HIV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... 30 at the international level in response to this terrible epidemic. By hearing Paul Volberding and Mark Gottlieb and others, this morning I had a terrible souvenir fr: memory coming to my ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 4.4 Michael Worobey — Spread of HIV in the New World (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... concentrate on getting us back to this morning's talks. When people like Mike Gottlieb and Paul Volberding started seeing clusters of these people without functioning immune systems ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 4.1 Ronald Desrosiers — The Origin of SIVmac: Non-human Primate Models for HIV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... 00:01:00 a few times so far at this meeting from Michael Gottlieb et al. (1) I remember like it was yesterday, the director of the New England ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 8.2 David Ho — Unraveling of HIV Dynamics In Vivo (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... training when I encountered two of the first five patients described by Mike Gottlieb from Los Angeles. Then in the subsequent year, I was chief medical resident, and I ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.4 Robert Gallo — Discoveries of Human Retrovirus, Their Linkage to Disease as Causative Agents & Preparation for the Future (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... learned from the clinicians, 00:19:30 even as early as the original Michael Gottlieb and Frederick P. Siegal and those people's papers, Alvin E. FriedmanKien, and so ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 3.2 Samuel Broder: The First Clinical Trials of Antiretroviral Drugs (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Fischl, Margaret A., Douglas D. Richman, Michael H. Grieco, Michael S. Gottlieb, Paul A. Volberding, Oscar L. Laskin, John M. Leedom, et al ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 9.1 Jon Cohen — Responding to AIDS: A Journalist's View (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Radio. Fresh Air. WHYY Philadelphia, August 11, 2004. Gottlieb, Michael S., Howard M. Schanker, Peng Thim Fan, Andrew Saxon ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 1.4 Robin Weiss — Retrovirus History and Early Searches for Human Retroviruses (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... 57. doi:10.1016/S01634453(85)920997 22. Gottlieb, Michael S., H. M. Schanker, Howard M., P. T. Fan ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 3.6 John C. Martin — Making it Simpler: A Single Pill to Treat HIV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... ear—Yes, yes. Thank you. Sandra: Question over there. Mike. Mike Gottlieb: Thanks. John, is there a good rationale for country by country registration and incountry studies, does ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 6.3 Bruce Walker — Role of T Cells in Controlling HIV Infection (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... 49. doi:10.1086/651382 Herbeck, Joshua T., Geoffrey S. Gottlieb, Cheryl A. Winkler, George W. Nelson, Ping An, Brandon S. Maust, Kim ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 8.5 Sharon Lewin — Research to a Cure: A Possible Goal? (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... 33:49 END OF VIDEO #cure vs. remission of HIV/AIDS Citations Gottlieb, Michael S., Howard M. Schanker, Peng Thim Fan, Andrew Saxon ...
Apr 27, 2021

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