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Robin Weiss: [00:00:00] Thank you, Steve [Goff], but it was the organizers who gave me this title, but I kept to it, and it's great to be back at Cold Spring Harbor and to see so many longstanding colleagues and friends. Thank you for inviting me. Now the first thing I'd like to say is that in terms of history and archives, [00:00:30] the publications in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press have it all, and there's even one book I've left out, which was the original HTLV-HIV meeting that was held here in the fall of 1983 and published in 1984. (1)  These books were the state of the art at the time, but they're very good historical archives now, to see how we were [00:01:00]—I was going to say groping towards the truth, but that's not a good word.

There are also the annual meetings of retroviruses, big fat abstracts, 400 abstracts in the books and so on. I particularly remember the main Cold Spring Harbor Symposium in 1974, which was devoted to tumor viruses, [00:01:30] and it was David Baltimore summing up at the end that clarified what was a rather murky field in terms of nomenclature(2) He came up with gagpolenv, and onc, and so on, and suddenly the mist cleared. We knew what we were talking about, because everyone had different terms of their different viruses. So Cold Spring Harbor has been important over the years. I think is a very [00:02:00] valuable archive for students of the history of this field. 

Of course AIDS goes far beyond science. When a new disease suddenly appears that's fatal, that’s associated with sex and drugs, it's bound to create myths and one or two scientists have contributed to them, myths of blame or denial.

The ill of AIDS also [00:02:30] coincided with the growth of the internet. So patients often knew more than their physicians. Activist groups, particularly here in the USA helped to set the agenda. We'll be hearing from Mark Harrington later in the meeting. Of course this impact of AIDS affected the arts and literature too. I've just put up a couple of poems  which I'm not going to read out to you. (3) I'll take all my 20 minutes, but Miroslav Holub’s (1923–1998, Czech immunologist and poet) is hardly longer than a haiku but it sums up Pneumocystis pretty well.

Well, back to retroviruses. If we look at the chronology of retrovirus isolation, it really spans the era of virology. (4)  It's only in 1898 that viruses were distinguished from other microbes as passing through filters: tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) [00:03:30]. The first virus that we now know is a retrovirus as a filtrate was discovered in 1905, a lentivirus as we'd now call this. It goes on through the years of the 20th century, but the human ones came late. We did not know about them until really 1980 onwards, and that's the history we're going to [00:04:00] celebrate.

If we look at the different types of retroviruses, they're broadly divided into seven groups, there's outliers as well. The human retroviruses are marked in red, the HTLVs and the HIVs, and I've also put up a couple in realm of the 8% of the human genome that represents fossil retroviral infections[00:04:30] A tremendous amount was learned about retroviruses from the avian alpharetroviruses and from the mammalian gammaretroviruses from the murine and feline leukemia viruses especially. We'll hear more about those later.

I chose a few landmark events in my mind about retrovirology, [00:05:00] starting with Peyton Rous (1879–1970), isolating the first solid tumor virus. (5) [Howard] Temin (1934–1994) and [Harry] Rubin's (1926–2020) cell transformation assay. Perhaps we shouldn't forget that at that time they didn't know that Rous sarcoma virus is an RNA virus. We didn't know what the nucleic acid was. That was only shown a little later by Lionel and Elizabeth Crawford. Then came the age of oncogenes[00:05:30] the discover with reverse transcriptase, and then the human retroviruses.

Robin A. Weiss, b. 1940, Prof. of Viral Oncology at University College London; formerly the Director of the Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, 1980–1989.

Jump to:

#endogenous retrovirus (ERV)

Now I would like to acknowledge Howard Temin—we'll hear more about him and John Coffin—and my mentor from my first post doc, rather rudely interrupted by the arrival of the Soviet tanks in Prague was Jan Svoboda (1934–2017, Czech virologist). I should [00:06:00] say to Jim [Watson] that I'm a kind of socialist, but that kind of socialism wasn't any more successful than capitalism, I don't think, and it was hard working behind the Iron Curtain. And my second postdoctoral mentor, Peter Vogt (b. 1932), these pictures show him sitting in our kitchen with his wife, Hiroko Vogt, but that's many years later.

At the bottom of the slide [00:06:30] is an example of this cell transformation assay or focus assay for Rous sarcoma virus that Howard Temin and Harry Rubin developed at Caltech while working in an Renato Dulbecco’s (1914–2012) lab. You can see the little spots in the wells or petri dishes are individual colonies of transformed cells as shown on the right. They gave a nice linear dose response to the amounts of [00:07:00] virus you put in, so it was a way of titrating them, as well as a way of examining what's going on in cell transformation.

My personal entry into the field, my first paper on viruses came out in August 1967. That's 49 years ago. It seems an awful long time ago. Astonishingly a very similar paper came out at about the same time from [00:07:30] Peter Vogt. What we were both showing was that a virus that was supposed to be defective and lacking envelope was actually infectious. Now, the fact that they produce particles had already been shown by Harriet Robinson (Emory Vaccine Center), who's in the audience, by labeling particles with tritiated uridine, but suddenly we had infectious virus. And this was [00:08:00] really the beginning of the…realization that there's something inside normal cells that we call [00:08:30] endogenous retroviruses and these viruses coming out of chickens plated on quail cells, they were xenotropic so to speak. 

Now, what about human tumor viruses? Well, we know we have them, we wouldn't be having this meeting without them, but they've also been rumors that haven't always held up. The discovery of reverse transcriptase in [00:09:00] 1970, it was not only terribly important in terms of understanding the virus, but it provided a tool for looking for virus infections because it was relatively easy to detect and investigators started finding viruses everywhere. Jim's already mentioned Sol Spiegelman (1914–1983)—I've left out the L in his name, sorry—I think he was right about Qβ and wrong about human retroviruses (6) and one of the papers [00:09:30] that showed what was really going on came from Bob Gallo's lab. (7) There was the announcement with great fanfare and [Robert M.] Bob McAllister and colleagues of a human retrovirus, which turned out to be an endogenous feline retrovirus, but the human tumor being passed through fetal cat brain as a xenograft. (8) This was shortly before nude mice (an immunocompromised lab mouse) had been developed. [00:10:00]. It was a way of growing human tumors and the tumor then picked up a virus from the host. 

Many virologists who were looking for human retroviruses during the 1970s gave up and said, "They're not really there." Bob [Gallo] persisted, and was rewarded in 1980 with a genuine human retrovirus infection. (9) If you're interested, Cécile Voisset[00:10:30] David [J.] Griffiths and I wrote up a 40-page review on "Human RNA 'Rumor' Viruses" published eight years ago. (10) We were recommended to do this after we'd owned up to one we thought was human that turned out to be an endogenous rabbit sequence. We've all been through these experiences and it's there to be read. That didn't prevent yet another xenograft contaminant coming up [00:11:00] with the big fuss four or five years ago, about XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus), and Kate Bishop (Francis Crick Institute) and John Coffin and the others who helped sort this out. (11)

It still seems to be curious that there are no gammaretroviruses in humans, infectious ones, because they so readily infect human xenografts. So if I say, "Why not?" people tell me, "Oh, haven't you heard about restriction factors?" and we'll certainly hear about them at this meeting, [00:11:30] yet some gammaretroviruses have quite a broad potential host range, and they're not restricted from jumping from one species to another or adapting to new species. I'll just give one example, the gammaretroviruses in Southeast Asian mice, which have jumped into primates, into a lesser ape, the lar gibbon and into koalas. Here's a virus, that the reservoir is endogenous, [00:12:00] is passed genetically, but it's a complete genome. (12)  It can come out as an infectious virus. It can infect very, very distantly related species, a marsupial, and an ape, so it's perhaps surprising that we haven't picked up one of these as well.

Not all mammals harbor infectious retroviruses. This is also curious. There will be a poster on some endogenous [00:12:30] sequences in dogs, I noticed in the abstract book. Here we have cats, and Max Essex will be speaking about cats. They're are a chockablock with different kinds of retrovirus. "Why don't dogs have them? Might humans be like dogs?", people wondered. Of course, it turns out we weren't.

The first genuine retrovirus infection in humans that was reported in a [00:13:00] literature was in 1971, from [Michael Anthony] Tony Epstein's (b. 1921) group—Tony Epstein of EBV [Epstein-Barr virus] fame—and he and Bert [Geoffrey] Achong (1928–1996, Trinidadian pathologist) observed this virus in culture that came out of a Kenyan patient with a carcinoma. (13) It was a foamy virus and later it was shown actually to be identical [00:13:30] to the chimpanzee [simian] foamy virus (SFV). In fact, we now know from very nice work done at CDC by Walid Heneine and colleagues that zoonoses, human infections with foamy virus of some primates occur quite commonly if humans have contact with them and that's not only Pygmies in the tropical forest in the Congo, its primate handlers here in USA, [00:14:00] but apparently, they're one stop infections. (14) They persist but they've examined infected people who happened to have been blood donors, and not found any foamy virus in the recipients. Here we have a virus that does infect humans, but it's off the radar. No one ever quotes it.

Along came HTLV[00:14:30] The human T-cell leukemia viruses, first called, and now human T-lymphotropic virus. Bob Gallo's group found this in, the first patient is African American with aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and you'll hear more about this from Bob, I guess. (15) Then a related virus [HTLV-II] found two years later from a patient with hairy cell leukemia, but we don't really know whether that [leukemia] was a coincidence [00:15:00] or not. (16) Incidentally, it's not really clear that HTLV-II is a pathogen, but it does immortalize CD4 cells in vitro, it has transforming properties, and it's prevalent in the West Indies, because the African West Indians had brought the virus with them from Africa. It was also found in Japan, and there was a very interesting paper three years before [00:15:30] the virus was discovered here by Bob Gallo and colleagues from [Kiyoshi] Takatsuki's group defining a new form of leukemia that looked hematologically different with these very characteristic flower cells, and in the same paper, when they mapped where these cases, adult T-cell leukemia, lymphoma, where the patients were born, they got this high density [00:16:00] in Kyushu and down the train to Okinawa, a little bit in Shikoku, but just one or two. There's one case who was born up in Hokkaido, so that looked interesting. (17)

In fact, Bob [Gallo] suggested that it may have been brought in by the Portuguese who landed and established their trading colony in Nagasaki. (18) [00:16:30] [Tsutomu] Kitamura and his colleagues in Nagasaki took this up, and they said, "Thus the HTLV of southwest Japan was probably directly brought in by Portuguese or their associated Black Africans." (19)  And I think it was Fernando de Noronha, Bob, who produced a picture like this. (20) He showed the monkey as well. You see, here's a Portuguese dignitary with his train of office—it was Ito [Yohei] was it? [00:17:00]—here's his African, the servant or slave holding the parasol above him. 

To Yorio Hinuma, this was a blow to national pride. He was extremely chauvinistic about, "HTLV is our Japanese virus." (21) Very different attitude from people in Africa who said, "Oh, [00:17:30] we didn't give rise to HIV." Beatrice [Hahn] will tell us otherwise. Science is not always politically correct, but he did produce some interesting evidence that it was quite a common infection in the hunter-gatherers in that northernmost part of Japan who are genetically more related to a people on Sakhalin Island and in the monkeys, nice furry ones that [00:18:00] live in that northern climate. Here's a nice project, this was all 30 years ago. If we really want to know, perhaps both [Yorio] Hinuma and Bob Gallo were right, but with today's sequencing we could very easily check whether this one was of the southwest Japan was an introduction, and whether this one's truly indigenous or not. It would be a good masters project also. [00:18:30] You wouldn't get a grant for it, but you could do it.


Then came the AIDS virus. The recognition of AIDS we'll hear from Jim Curran. (22) I became convinced that it was a virus, not some behavioral thing or exposure to drugs when the second—It was the third report in Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report came out [00:19:00] saying that recipients of blood transfusions, and particularly people with hemophilia were developing AIDS. (23) So what else could be transmissible in clotting factors but a virus? 

Unlike Bob [Gallo] and Françoise [Barré-Sinoussi] and Max [Myron Essex], I didn't think it would be a retrovirus. I didn't think that would survive factor VIII preparation. [00:19:30] Little did I know about how crude clotting factor preparations are. I would have put my money on something like a parvovirus, some small DNA virus that establishes a persistent infection, and I was completely wrong. Then the virus was isolated, as we well know, in Paris (24), and NIH (25) and in San Francisco. I think Jay [A.] Levy (b. 1938, one of the three independent discoverers of HIV) deserves a little more [00:20:00] recognition as he's getting these days but he made important contributions too. (26)

We were a bit slow to realize that HIV is a lentivirus. This is because lentiviruses weren't known to cause immune deficiency, whereas some oncogenic virus or their variants were known to cause immune deficiency. You'll hear more from Max [Essex] about that. Already in, I think it was April [00:20:30] 1984, Luc Montagnier said, "Well, an electron microscopist Charles Dauguet said, 'Look, these particles really resemble equine infectious anemia virus.'" (27) Then a slew of papers with the complete sequences of HIV were published in December '84, January '85. We were none the wiser but Simon Wain-Hobson and Pierre Sonigo went on to [00:21:00] sequence the lentivirus Visna. (28) That came after sequencing HIV and their genome structure and open reading frames looked almost identical, and then Matt [Matthew A.] Gonda did much nicer electron micrographs also saying they really do look like lentiviruses. (29) We thought they might be from the oncogenic virus family but in fact, they were [00:21:30] lentiviruses. (30)

(Note: the top of Weiss’ slide is wrong, it should say MMWR June 1981 and MMWR July 1982)







That brings me on to a hero of mine, though I never met him, I know Ashley [T.] Haase has. Björn Sigurðsson (1913–1959) who sadly died young, aged 46. He studied infections of Icelandic sheep and including Visna and [00:22:00] Maedi, and he recognized that they were two different syndromes of the same virus. He first isolated the virus. That's published just after his death. (31) His uninfected cells—here's a cytopathic plaque of Maedi-Visna virus, the syncytia—and he coined the term lentivirus. He's worth remembering.

He did some beautiful epidemiology too. (32) [00:22:30] He came up with the story of the introduction of these infections from apparently healthy sheep from Germany that were [asymptomatic] carriers. He plotted with each red spot where these 13 or 14 rams were introduced and showed that this Maedi-Visna must have been a source from one of these two and these two. Scrapie by the way was already [00:23:00] endemic in Iceland, not associated with the rams and this was really a set of beautiful studies. I think he was a great man in the history of retroviruses and particularly lentiviruses.

As we think a bit more of the pathogenesis of lentiviruses, of course, with HIV, it causes AIDS and Michael [00:23:30] Gottlieb's first detailed paper on AIDS published [in the] New England Journal [of Medicine] in 1981 showed the selective depletion of CD4 cells. (33) David Klatzmann in Paris showed that  this was mimicked in culture. (34) and I think the really key paper is of Suzanne Gartner—again, this is Bob Gallo's group—saying this virus grows in macrophages as well [00:24:00] as in lymphocytes. (35–36)

To my mind Maedi-Visna syndrome is like AIDS without immune deficiency. You get a wasting disease and the sheep equivalent of dementia. The reservoir is in macrophages, not in lymphocytes, but the disease is progressive and fatal in susceptible animals. I think it will be quite a good model for looking at non-lymphocytic reservoirs and [00:24:30] virus dynamics. In fact, I just learned from the meeting in Baltimore two weeks ago from Victor Garcia's group [at University of North Carolina] that they've developed humanized mice, humanized for myeloid hematopoetic cells only which can be infected with HIV, and the infected macrophages sustain HIV replication. It would be interesting to know if they go on to [00:25:00] develop a Maedi-Visna-like syndrome. Infectious equine anemia virus is also has a tropism for monocytes and macrophages, and incidentally about 15% of horses' long-term infections recover. This is a sort of spontaneous functional cure. Now, you won't get a grant to study sheep or horses, but I think there are lessons we [00:25:30] could learn from them.

Another take-home message you may not like is: I would say that human lentivirus infections are an excellent model for non-human primates, because we usually think the other way around. But in terms of history, HIV-1 was discovered first, then came the SIVs (simian immunodeficiency viruses)[00:26:00] The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the lentivirus wasn't discovered until later, and the chimpanzee SIV even later. However, we can say that HIV-2 is discovered as a consequence of finding serological cross-reactions against the SIVs. I think Max will talk about that.

Now, why am I standing here? Where did I come into this story? I didn't come into it at all, actually. I left [00:26:30] avian retroviruses in 1979 and I left viruses. I thought I wasn't going to study retroviruses anymore, because of this paper from Bob Weinberg (b. 1942) that he showed that you could do a similar focus assay as Rous sarcoma virus by extracting DNA from tumor cells and inputting them on the non-transformed cell lines. (37) This [00:27:00] was rapidly developed by others, including Mike Wigler (b. 1947) here at Cold Spring Harbor. (38) I was just moving from the ICRF (Imperial Cancer Research Fund) labs in London, which has a high load of tumor virologists, or did in those days, to go through the Chester Beatty [Laboratories] at Royal Marsden Hospital which had much more of a focus on human tumors. I thought, right, we'll look for human tumors and I abandoned retrovirology [00:27:30].

I recruited two very smart people. Sadly they both died last year. Chris Marshall (1949–2015) said I propositioned him here at Cold Spring Harbor, I don't exactly remember that but I recruited him here. You know, Mila [Pollock] like you should do a history of not only romances between people at Cold Spring Harbor meetings or who work here but also [00:28:00] scientific collaborations that may have started from these meetings, it’d be an interesting—you've done it, have you? Oh, great. Chris joined my lab, and we were looking for molecular biologists and Charlie Weissmann (b. 1931, molecular biologist) said, I've got this guy, Alan Hall (1952–2015), he hasn't published anything but I think he's smart. Now, Charles Weissman didn't call people smart loosely. We brought Alan in as well [00:28:30] and we started looking for human oncogenes by transfection and found them.

Why did I leave this promising new field and go back to retroviruses? The answer is quite simple. Actually, Chris and Alan were so smart that I became entirely superfluous. So it was my grant and I organized the weekly lab meetings, but they just sailed way ahead of [00:29:00] me. (39) And the second reason was that we actually had human retroviruses now. I thought I should do what I'd always been doing, looking at pseudotypes and envelope properties with the human retroviruses, and I remember the particular day that postdoc in my lab Rachanee [Cheingsong-Popov] came back from Paris with LAV. Thank you very much, Françoise [Barré-Sinoussi], because it was a Leap Day (February 29, 1984). It stuck in my [00:29:30] mind and the virus took off like a rocket. 

Here are two early papers of ours where Rachanee actually developed a serological assay, and we first looked at British patients. (40) This was published on September 1st, 1984. It's curious looking back at it that it was just another paper saying you can find [00:30:00] antibodies, but actually the numbers of samples in our papers was more than the CDCNIH, and Institute Pasteur added together! We went in for high throughput and, we found that AIDS patients were positive, people with what the same called persistent generalized lymphadenopathy sort of pre-AIDS were positive. About one in three men and boys with hemophilia were positive and blood donors[00:30:30] thousands, of them were negative. We thought, here we've got high specificity and high sensitivity. 

But then we looked at this new disease in Uganda"slim disease." This is the introduction to our paper by David Serwadda (b. 1959, Ugandan physician and public health specialist), Nelson Sewankambo (b. 1952, Ugandan physician and medical researcher) in Mulago Hospital in Kampala. (41) It had all the signature features of AIDS. People thought it's probably is AIDS. We looked at [00:31:00] the serology there, yes, 100% positive, aggressive forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, 100% positive, but then we thought, Oh, well with African sera, the specificity isn't good enough, we're getting 10% false positives. This test isn't enough good in Africa. And then the penny dropped. They weren't false positives. The 10% of our sample population were already HIV positive [00:31:30]. That was not a very good evening when we realized that. 

And there was one more paper. (42) This is my second last, Julie [Overbaugh]. We published alongside a paper from Bob Gallo's lab, Marjorie Robert-Guroff (43) the first two reports of neutralizing antibodies to HIV. We compared neutralization of a [00:32:00] small set of HTLV infected patients against their virus and of HIV infected patients, and compare them to surface immunofluorescence and a competitive radio-immunoassay for gp120. You can see that both sets of patients with high titers of virus measured by these means, but whereas the HTLV patients have very high titers of neutralizing antibodies. It's barely there [00:32:30] in the AIDS patients.

Now, 30 years later, despite the exquisitely potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, envelope emissions still don't show much improvement over natural selection. Maybe I'll be persuaded to the contrary later in this meeting, but some as far as I'm concerned, in this field, I’m a “long-term non-progressor” [00:33:00] and [I’m] still in the same place as I was 31 years ago. Now, no research would be possible without funding and I'll stop there. Thank you.



Steve Goff (moderator)Don't go away. Robin, thank you. We have time for just a few questions and then we'll get on, anyone, not many [00:33:30]. Maybe none. I haven't sign us the whole audience's questions. If not, we should-

Robin Weiss: Well, Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) gave his first talk on what he later called Penicillin before it was published, and there were no questions afterwards. He sat down and said, "Well, everything must have been crystal [00:34:00] clear.”


Steve: Fair enough.


Steve: Robin, thank you.

[00:34:13] [END OF AUDIO]




1. On the slide:

  • John Tooze, The Molecular Biology of Tumour Viruses, Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1973).
  • Robin Weiss et al., eds., RNA Tumor Viruses, vol. 1, Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1982).
  • John M. Coffin, Stephen H. Hughes, and Harold E. Varmus, Retroviruses (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1997).
  • Robert C. Gallo et al., eds., Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus: The Family of Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses, Their Role in Malignancies and Association with Aids (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1984).

2. Tumor Viruses. 2 vols. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 39. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1975.

3. Miroslav Holub, Vanishing Lung  Syndrome, trans. Dana Habova and David Young, Field Translation Series 16 (Oberlin, Ohio: Oberlin College Press, 1990); Thom Gunn, “The Man with Night Sweats,” in Selected Poems (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009).

4. Weiss’ slide, “Chronology of Retrovirus Isolation”:

  • Vallée, Henri, and Henri Carré. “Sur la nature infectieuse de l’anémie du cheval.” Comptes rendus des séances de l’académie des sciences 139 (July 24, 1904): 331–33.
  • Ellermann, V., and O. Bang. “Experimentelle Leukämie bei Hühnern.” Centralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde und Infektionskrankheiten, Abt. 1, Medizinisch-hygienische Bakteriologie, Virusforschung und tierische Parasitologie, Originale, 46, no. 7 (1908): 595–609.
  • Rous, Peyton. “A Sarcoma of the Fowl Transmissible by an Agent Separable from the Tumor Cells.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 13, no. 4 (April 1, 1911): 397–411.
  • Bittner, John J. “Some Possible Effects of Nursing on the Mammary Gland Tumor Incidence in Mice.” Science 84, no. 2172 (August 14, 1936): 162–162. doi:10.1126/science.84.2172.162.
  • Rustigian, Robert C., Paul Johnston, and Helen Reihart. “Infection of Monkey Kidney Tissue Cultures with Virus-like Agents.” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 88, no. 1 (January 1955): 8–16. doi:10.3181/00379727-88-21478.
  • Gross, Ludwik. “Development and Serial Cell-Free Passage of a Highly Potent Strain of Mouse Leukemia Virus.” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 94, no. 4 (April 1957): 767–71. doi:10.3181/00379727-94-23080.
  • Sigurdsson, Björn, Halldór Thormar, and Páll A. Pálsson. “Cultivation of Visna Virus in Tissue Culture.” Archiv Für Die Gesamte Virusforschung 10, no. 3 (June 1, 1960): 368–81. doi:10.1007/BF01250682.
  • Jarrett, William. F. H., Edwin. M. Crawford, William. B. Martin, and Frank E. Davie. “A Virus-Like Particle Associated with Leukemia (Lymphosarcoma).” Nature 202 (May 9, 1964): 567–69. doi:10.1038/202567a0.
  • Jarrett, William F. H., William B. Martin, George. W. Crighton, R. G. Dalton, and M. F. Stewart. “Leukemia in the Cat: Transmission Experiments with Leukemia (Lymphosarcoma).” Nature 202, no. 4932 (May 1964): 566–67. doi:10.1038/202566a0.
  • Chopra, Harish C., and Marcus M. Mason. “A New Virus in a Spontaneous Mammary Tumor of a Rhesus Monkey.” Cancer Research 30, no. 8 (August 1, 1970): 2081–86.
  • Van der Maaten, M. J., A. D. Boothe, and C. L. Seger. “Isolation of a Virus from Cattle with Persistent Lymphocytosis.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 49, no. 6 (December 1972): 1649–57. doi:10.1093/jnci/49.6.1649.
  • Poiesz, Bernard J., Francis W. Ruscetti, Adi F. Gazdar, Paul A. Bunn, John D. Minna, and Robert C. Gallo. “Detection and Isolation of Type C Retrovirus Particles from Fresh and Cultured Lymphocytes of a Patient with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77, no. 12 (December 1980): 7415–19. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415.
  • Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S., Mangalasseril G. Sarngadharan, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Isao Miyoshi, David W. Golde, and Robert C. Gallo. “A New Subtype of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-II) Associated with a T-Cell Variant of Hairy Cell Leukemia.” Science 218, no. 4572 (November 5, 1982): 571–73. doi:10.1126/science.6981847.
  • Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise, Jean-Claude Chermann, Françoise Rey, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, Sophie Chamaret, Jacqueline Gruest, Charles Dauguet, et al. “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).” Science 220, no. 4599 (May 20, 1983): 868–71. doi:10.1126/science.6189183.
  • Clavel, François, Denise Guétard, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, S Chamaret, Sophie, Marie-Anne Rey, Maria Odette Santos-Ferreira, Anne G. Laurent, et al. “Isolation of a New Human Retrovirus from West African Patients with AIDS.” Science 233, no. 4761 (July 18, 1986): 343–46. doi:10.1126/science.2425430.

5. Weiss' slide, "Some landmark events in the history of retrovirology":

  • Rous, Peyton. “A Sarcoma of the Fowl Transmissible by an Agent Separable from the Tumor Cells.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 13, no. 4 (April 1, 1911): 397–411.
  • Temin, Howard M., and Harry Rubin. “Characteristics of an Assay for Rous Sarcoma Virus and Rous Sarcoma Cells in Tissue Culture.” Virology 6, no. 3 (December 1958): 669–88. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(58)90114-4.
  • Crawford, Lionel V., and Elizabeth M. Crawford. “The Properties of Rous Sarcoma Virus Purified by Density Gradient Centrifugation.” Virology 13, no. 2 (February 1, 1961): 227–32. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(61)90056-3.
  • Duesberg, Peter H., G. Steven Martin, and Peter K. Vogt. “Glycoprotein Components of Avian and Murine RNA Tumor Viruses.” Virology 41, no. 4 (August 1970): 631–46. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(70)90428-9.
  • Baltimore, David. “Viral RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase: RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virions of RNA Tumour Viruses.” Nature 226, no. 5252 (June 27, 1970): 1209–11. doi:10.1038/2261209a0.
  • Mizutani, Satoshi, and Howard M. Temin. “Viral RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase: RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virions of Rous Sarcoma Virus.” Nature 226, no. 5252 (June 27, 1970): 1211–13. doi:10.1038/2261211a0.
  • Stehelin, Dominique, Harold E. Varmus, J. Michael Bishop, and Peter K. Vogt. “DNA Related to the Transforming Gene(s) of Avian Sarcoma Viruses Is Present in Normal Avian DNA.” Nature 260, no. 5547 (March 1976): 170–73. doi:10.1038/260170a0.
  • Poiesz, Bernard J., Francis W. Ruscetti, Adi F. Gazdar, Paul A. Bunn, John D. Minna, and Robert C. Gallo. “Detection and Isolation of Type C Retrovirus Particles from Fresh and Cultured Lymphocytes of a Patient with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77, no. 12 (December 1980): 7415–19. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415.
  • Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise, Jean-Claude Chermann, Françoise Rey, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, Sophie Chamaret, Jacqueline Gruest, Charles Dauguet, et al. “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).” Science 220, no. 4599 (May 20, 1983): 868–71. doi:10.1126/science.6189183.
  • Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima, Christof von Kalle, Michael Schmidt, Matthew P. McCormack, Nico Wulffraat, Philippe Leboulch, Annick Lim, et al. “LMO2-Associated Clonal T Cell Proliferation in Two Patients after Gene Therapy for SCID-X1.” Science 302, no. 5644 (October 17, 2003): 415–19. doi:10.1126/science.1088547.

6. Schlom, Jeffrey, and Sol Spiegelman. “Simultaneous Detection of Reverse Transcriptase and High Molecular Weight RNA Unique to Oncogenic RNA Viruses.” Science 174, no. 4011 (November 19, 1971): 840–43. doi:10.1126/science.174.4011.840.

7. Reitz, Marvin S., R. Graham Smith, E. A. Roseberry, and Robert C. Gallo. “DNA-Directed and RNA-Primed DNA Synthesis in Microsomal and Mitochondrial Fractions of Normal Human Lymphocytes.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 57, no. 3 (April 8, 1974): 934–48. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(74)90635-4.

 8. McAllister, Robert M., M. Nicolson, M. B. Gardner, R. W. Rongey, S. Rasheed, P. S. Sarma, R. J. Huebner, et al. “C-Type Virus Released from Cultured Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells.” Nature New Biology 235, no. 53 (January 1972): 3–6. doi:10.1038/newbio235003a0

9. Poiesz, Bernard J., Francis W. Ruscetti, Adi F. Gazdar, Paul A. Bunn, John D. Minna, and Robert C. Gallo. “Detection and Isolation of Type C Retrovirus Particles from Fresh and Cultured Lymphocytes of a Patient with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77, no. 12 (December 1980): 7415–19. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415.

 10. Voisset, Cécile, Robin A. Weiss, and David J. Griffiths. “Human RNA ‘Rumor’ Viruses: The Search for Novel Human Retroviruses in Chronic Disease.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 72, no. 1 (March 1, 2008): 157–96. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00033-07.

 11. XMRV:

  • Groom, Harriet C. T., and Kate N. Bishop. “The Tale of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus.” Journal of General Virology 93, no. 5 (2012): 915–24. doi:10.1099/vir.0.041038-0.
  • Paprotka, Tobias, Krista A. Delviks-Frankenberry, Oya Cingöz, Anthony Martinez, Hsing-Jien Kung, Clifford G. Tepper, Wei-Shau Hu, Matthew J. Fivash, John M. Coffin, and Vinay K. Pathak. “Recombinant Origin of the Retrovirus XMRV.” Science 333, no. 6038 (July 1, 2011): 97–101. doi:10.1126/science.1205292.

12. Tarlinton, Rachael E., Joanne Meers, and Paul R. Young. “Retroviral Invasion of the Koala Genome.” Nature 442, no. 7098 (July 2006): 79–81. doi:10.1038/nature04841.

13. Achong, Bert Geoffrey, Peter W. A. Mansell, M. Anthony Epstein, and Peter Clifford. “An Unusual Virus in Cultures From a Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.” JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 46, no. 2 (February 1, 1971): 299–307. doi:10.1093/jnci/46.2.299.

14. Simian foamy virus:

  • Hussain, Althaf I., Vedapuri Shanmugam, Vinod B. Bhullar, Brigitte E. Beer, Dominique Vallet, Annie Gautier-Hion, Nathan D. Wolfe, et al. “Screening for Simian Foamy Virus Infection by Using a Combined Antigen Western Blot Assay: Evidence for a Wide Distribution among Old World Primates and Identification of Four New Divergent Viruses.” Virology 309, no. 2 (May 10, 2003): 248–57. doi:10.1016/S0042-6822(03)00070-9.
  • Switzer, William M., Shaohua Tang, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Anupama Shankar, Debra L. Hanson, HaoQiang Zheng, Ahidjo Ayouba, et al. “Novel Simian Foamy Virus Infections from Multiple Monkey Species in Women from the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Retrovirology 9, no. 1 (December 5, 2012): 100. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-100.
  • Switzer, William M., Shaohua Tang, HaoQiang Zheng, Anupama Shankar, Patrick S. Sprinkle, Vickie Sullivan, Timothy C. Granade, and Walid Heneine. “Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d’Ivoire.” PLOS ONE 11, no. 6 (June 16, 2016): e0157709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157709.

15. Poiesz, Bernard J., Francis W. Ruscetti, Adi F. Gazdar, Paul A. Bunn, John D. Minna, and Robert C. Gallo. “Detection and Isolation of Type C Retrovirus Particles from Fresh and Cultured Lymphocytes of a Patient with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77, no. 12 (December 1980): 7415–19. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415.

16. Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S., Mangalasseril G. Sarngadharan, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Isao Miyoshi, David W. Golde, and Robert C. Gallo. “A New Subtype of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-II) Associated with a T-Cell Variant of Hairy Cell Leukemia.” Science 218, no. 4572 (November 5, 1982): 571–73. doi:10.1126/science.6981847.

17. HTLV:

  • Gallo, Robert C., Guy B. de-Thé, and Yohei Ito. “Kyoto Workshop on Some Specific Recent Advances in Human Tumor Virology.” Cancer Research 41, no. 11 Part 1 (November 1, 1981): 4738–39.
  • Gessain, Antoine, Jean-Claude Vernant, Laurent Maurs, Françis Barin, Olivier Gout, Alain Calender, and Guy B. de-Thé. “Antibodies to Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-I in Patients with Tropical Spastic Paraparesis.” The Lancet, Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8452, 326, no. 8452 (August 24, 1985): 407–10. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(85)92734-5.
  • Uchiyama, Takashi, Junji Yodoi, Kimitaka Sagawa, Kiyoshi Takatsuki, and Haruto Uchino. “Adult T-Cell Leukemia: Clinical and Hematologic Features of 16 Cases.” Blood 50, no. 3 (September 1977): 481–92.

18. Gallo, Robert C., Ann Sliski, and Flossie Wong-Staal. “Origin of Human T-Cell Leukaemia-Lymphoma Virus.” The Lancet 322, no. 8356 (October 22, 1983): 962–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90471-3.

19. Hino, Shigeo, Kenichiro Kinoshita, and Tsutomu Kitamura. “HTLV and the Propagation of Christianity in Nagasaki.” The Lancet 324, no. 8402 (September 8, 1984): 572–73. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)90780-3.

20. Gallo, Robert C., Ann H. Sliski, Carlos M. C. De Noronha, and Fernando De Noronha. “Origins of Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses.” Nature 320, no. 6059 (March 1986): 219–219. doi:10.1038/320219a0.

21. Ishida, Takafumi, Kohtaro Yamamoto, Keiichi Omoto, Michiyo Iwanaga, Toyoro Osato, and Yorio Hinuma. “Prevalence of a Human Retrovirus in Native Japanese: Evidence for a Possible Ancient Origin.” Journal of Infection 11, no. 2 (September 1, 1985): 153–57. doi:10.1016/S0163-4453(85)92099-7.

22. Gottlieb, Michael S., H. M. Schanker, Howard M., P. T. Fan, Peng Thim, Andrew Saxon, Joel D. Weisman, and I. Pozalski. “Pneumocystis Pneumonia—Los Angeles.” MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 30, no. 21 (June 5, 1981): 250–52.

23. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). “Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia among Persons with Hemophilia A.” MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 31, no. 27 (July 16, 1982): 365–67. 

24. Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise, Jean-Claude Chermann, Françoise Rey, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, Sophie Chamaret, Jacqueline Gruest, Charles Dauguet, et al. “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).” Science 220, no. 4599 (May 20, 1983): 868–71. doi:10.1126/science.6189183.

25. Four papers by Bob Gallo's group at NCI:

  • Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S., Mangalasseril G. Sarngadharan, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Isao Miyoshi, David W. Golde, and Robert C. Gallo. “A New Subtype of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-II) Associated with a T-Cell Variant of Hairy Cell Leukemia.” Science 218, no. 4572 (November 5, 1982): 571–73. doi:10.1126/science.6981847.
  • Popovic, Mikulas, Mangalasseril G. Sarngadharan, Elizabeth Read, and Robert C. Gallo. “Detection, Isolation, and Continuous Production of Cytopathic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and Pre-AIDS.” Science224, no. 4648 (May 4, 1984): 497–500. doi:10.1126/science.6200935.
  • Sarngadharan, Mangalasseril G., Mikulas Popovic, L. Bruch, J. Schupbach, and Robert C. Gallo. “Antibodies Reactive with Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the Serum of Patients with AIDS.” Science 224, no. 4648 (May 4, 1984): 506–8. doi:10.1126/science.6324345.
  • Schupbach, J., Mikulas Popovic, R. V. Gilden, Matthew A. Gonda, Mangalasseril G. Sarngadharan, and Robert C. Gallo. “Serological Analysis of a Subgroup of Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) Associated with AIDS.” Science 224, no. 4648 (May 4, 1984): 503–5. doi:10.1126/science.6200937.

26. Levy, Jay. A., Alan D. Hoffman, Susan Mukavitz Kramer, Jacquelyn. A. Landis, J. M. Shimabukuro, and Lyndon S. Oshiro. “Isolation of Lymphocytopathic Retroviruses from San Francisco Patients with AIDS.” Science 225, no. 4664 (August 24, 1984): 840–42. doi:10.1126/science.6206563.

27. Montagnier, Luc, Jacqueline Gruest, Sophie Chamaret, Charles Dauguet, Claudine Axler-Blin, Denise Guétard, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, et al. “Adaptation of Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) to Replication in EBV-Transformed B Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines.” Science 225, no. 4657 (July 6, 1984): 63–66. doi:10.1126/science.6328661.

28. Wain-Hobson, Simon, Pierre Sonigo, Olivier Danos, Stewart Cole, and Marc Alizon. “Nucleotide Sequence of the AIDS Virus, LAV.” Cell 40, no. 1 (January 1985): 9–17. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90303-4.

29. Gonda, Matthew A., M. J. Braun, J. E. Clements, J. M. Pyper, Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo, and R. V. Gilden. “Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type III Shares Sequence Homology with a Family of Pathogenic Lentiviruses.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83, no. 11 (June 1, 1986): 4007–11. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.11.4007.

30. On the slide: Zhang, Xiaolin, Angelika Langford, Jürgen Becker, Jörg-Peter Rabanus, Hans-Dieter Pohle, Peter Reichart, and Hans Gelderblom. “Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Findings in Oral Hairy Leukoplakia.” Virchows Archiv A412, no. 6 (November 1, 1988): 533–42. doi:10.1007/BF00844289.

31. Sigurðsson, Björn, Halldór Thormar, and Páll A. Pálsson. “Cultivation of Visna Virus in Tissue Culture.” Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung 10, no. 3 (June 1, 1960): 368–81. doi:10.1007/BF01250682.

32. Sigurðsson, Björn. “Mædi, A Slow Progressive Pneumonia of Sheep: An Epizoological and a Pathological Study.” British Veterinary Journal 110, no. 7 (July 1, 1954): 255–70. doi:10.1016/S0007-1935(17)50273-0.

33. Gottlieb, Michael S., Robert Schroff, Howard M. Schanker, Joel D. Weisman, Peng Thim Fan, Robert A. Wolf, and Andrew Saxon. “Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia and Mucosal Candidiasis in Previously Healthy Homosexual Men.” New England Journal of Medicine 305, no. 24 (December 10, 1981): 1425–31. doi:10.1056/NEJM198112103052401.

34. Klatzman's 3 papers:

  • Clavel, François, Denise Guétard, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, Sophie Chamaret, Marie-Anne Rey, Maria Odette Santos-Ferreira, Anne G. Laurent, et al. “Isolation of a New Human Retrovirus from West African Patients with AIDS.” Science 233, no. 4761 (July 18, 1986): 343–46. doi:10.1126/science.2425430.
  • Klatzmann, David, Eric Champagne, Sophie Chamaret, Jacqueline Gruest, Denise Guetard, Thierry Hercend, Jean-Claude Gluckman, and Luc Montagnier. “T-Lymphocyte T4 Molecule Behaves as the Receptor for Human Retrovirus LAV.” Nature 312, no. 5996 (December 1984): 767–68. doi:10.1038/312767a0.
  • Montagnier, Luc, Jacqueline Gruest, Sophie Chamaret, Dauguet Charles, Claudine Axler-Blin, Denise Guétard, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, et al. “Adaptation of Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) to Replication in EBV-Transformed B Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines.” Science 225, no. 4657 (July 6, 1984): 63–66. doi:10.1126/science.6328661.

35. Gartner, Suzanne, Paul Markovits, David M. Markovitz, Mark H. Kaplan, Robert C. Gallo, and Mikulas Popovic. “The Role of Mononuclear Phagocytes in HTLV-III/LAV Infection.” Science 233, no. 4760 (July 11, 1986): 215–19. doi:10.1126/science.3014648.

36. Two additional citations on HIV pathogenesis:

  • "CD4 is necessary but not sufficient for cell entry": Maddon, Paul Jay, Angus G. Dalgleish, J. Steven McDougal, Paul R. Clapham, Robin A. Weiss, and Richard Axel. “The T4 Gene Encodes the AIDS Virus Receptor and Is Expressed in the Immune System and the Brain.” Cell 47, no. 3 (November 7, 1986): 333–48. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90590-8.
  • Identification of CXCR4 and CCR5: Feng, Yu, Christopher C. Broder, Paul E. Kennedy, and Edward A. Berger. “HIV-1 Entry Cofactor: Functional CDNA Cloning of a Seven-Transmembrane, G Protein-Coupled Receptor.” Science 272, no. 5263 (May 10, 1996): 872–77. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.872.

37. Two citations for Robert A. Weinberg:

  • Shih, Chiaho, Ben-Zion Shilo, Mitchell P. Goldfarb, A. Dannenberg, and Robert A. Weinberg. “Passage of Phenotypes of Chemically Transformed Cells via Transfection of DNA and Chromatin.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 76, no. 11 (November 1, 1979): 5714–18. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.11.5714
  • Shih, Chiaho, L. C. Padhy, Mark Murray, and Robert A. Weinberg. “Transforming Genes of Carcinomas and Neuroblastomas Introduced into Mouse Fibroblasts.” Nature 290, no. 5803 (March 1981): 261–64. doi:10.1038/290261a0

38. Taparowsky, Elizabeth, Yolande Suard, Ottavio Fasano, Kenji Shimizu, Mitchell Goldfarb, and Michael Wigler. “Activation of the T24 Bladder Carcinoma Transforming Gene Is Linked to a Single Amino Acid Change.” Nature300, no. 5894 (December 1982): 762–65. doi:10.1038/300762a0.

39. Two citations on Chris Marshall and Alan Hall in Weiss' lab:

  • Hall, Alan, Christopher J. Marshall, Nigel K. Spurr, and Robin A. Weiss. “Identification of Transforming Gene in Two Human Sarcoma Cell Lines as a New Member of the Ras Gene Family Located on Chromosome 1.” Nature 303, no. 5916 (June 1983): 396–400. doi:10.1038/303396a0.
  • Marshall, Christopher J., Alan Hall, and Robin A. Weiss. “A Transforming Gene Present in Human Sarcoma Cell Lines.” Nature 299, no. 5879 (September 1982): 171–73. doi:10.1038/299171a0.

40. Cheingsong-Popov, Rachanee, Robin A. Weiss, Angus G. Dalgleish, Richard S. Tedder, Donald J. Jeffries, David. C Shanson, Ruth Bridget Ferns, et al. “Prevalence of Antibody to Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III in Aids and AIDS-Risk Patients in Britain.” The Lancet, Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8401, 324, no. 8401 (September 1, 1984): 477–80. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)92562-5.

41. Serwadda, David, Nelson K. Sewankambo, J. Wilson Carswell, Anne C. Bayley, Richard S. Tedder, Robin A. Weiss, Roy D. Mugerwa, et al. “Slim Disease: A New Disease in Uganda and Its Association with HTLV-III Infection.” The Lancet, Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8460, 326, no. 8460 (October 19, 1985): 849–52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(85)90122-9.

42. Weiss, Robin A., Paul R. Clapham, Rachanee Cheingsong-Popov, Angus G. Dalgleish, Christopher A. Carne, Ian V. D. Weller, and Richard S. Tedder. “Neutralization of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III by Sera of AIDS and AIDS-Risk Patients.” Nature 316, no. 6023 (July 1985): 69–72. doi:10.1038/316069a0.

43. Robert-Guroff, Marjorie, Monica Brown, and Robert C. Gallo. “HTLV-III-Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients with AIDS and AIDS-Related Complex.” Nature 316, no. 6023 (July 1985): 72–74. doi:10.1038/316072a0.




Found 19 search result(s) for Weiss.

Page: Visna-maedi virus (VMV) (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Visna virus or simply "Visna." The first lentivirus to be characterized, see 1.4 Robin Weiss — Retrovirus History and Early Searches for Human Retroviruses
Aug 23, 2020
Page: discovery and naming of HIV/HTLV-III/LAV/ARV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Oroszlan Natalie Teich Howard Temin Kumao Toyoshima Peter Vogt Robin Weiss However, Gallo and Essex objected to the conclusions of the committee and did not sign the letter published ...
Mar 07, 2021
Page: sensitivity and specificity; false positive, false negative; biological specificity (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Silverstein, Arthur M. A History of Immunology. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009.  Weiss, Paul A. “The Problem of Specificity in Growth and Development.” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 19 ...
Aug 24, 2020
Page: 1.6 Harold Varmus — Animal Retroviruses and Cancer Research (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Peter Vogt has found many and Hidesaburo Hanafusa found several, Robin Weiss made—Robin has actually looked at wild birds infected in jungle, you ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 1.5 John Coffin — The Origin of Molecular Retrovirology (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... do that, I want to point out something that—actually to emphasize something that Robin Weiss mentioned as well, and that's the importance of Cold Spring Harbor to the field overall. The annual ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.5 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi — Discovery of HIV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... started to be involved in AIDS?" Apparently, except some people like Robin, Robin Weiss 00:01:30 know perfectly well my story, I've been ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.4 Robert Gallo — Discoveries of Human Retrovirus, Their Linkage to Disease as Causative Agents & Preparation for the Future (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... role in cancer in man. In fact, there was another Cold Spring Harbor meeting, Robin Weiss referred to one, RNA tumor viruses, last night. (2) There was 00:02 ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 4.3 Beatrice Hahn — Apes to Humans: The Origin of HIV (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... can happen in captivity. 00:10:00 Really, I think Robin Weiss was the one that said, “Is there really a natural reservoir?” and that was a legitimate question. At that point, the NIH actually ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 2.3 Mark Harrington — The Importance of Activism to the US Response (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Thank you, Mark, it was excellent. Questions please, there are time for a couple. Robin. Robin Weiss: Well…I just like to thank you and Jay for keeping us all ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 8.6 David Baltimore — Bringing it to an End (And Where Are We Going?) (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... work. Ashley: Robin, one last comment/question before lunch. Robin Weiss: David said it for me. HIV was unique and it had 60 years to get going ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... feline retroviruses, but I will talk about them. Okay. I think Robin Weiss mentioned that the first evidence of feline leukemia virus was by Bill Jarrett (1928–2011 ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 3.2 Samuel Broder: The First Clinical Trials of Antiretroviral Drugs (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... John Mellors (Moderator): We have time for a couple of questions. Robin? Robin Weiss: Would you like to say a word about the evolution of resistance, when you ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 3.1 Marty St. Clair: Discovery of AZT as the First Anti-HIV Drug (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... so we didn't go any further with those. John: Robin. Robin Weiss: I must say it's very nice to hear this story in retrospect, personally ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 5.4 Edward Berger — Discovery of HIV Co-receptors (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Paul R. Clapham, Dorothy H. Crawford, Melvyn F. Greaves, and Robin A. Weiss. “The CD4 (T4) Antigen Is an Essential Component of the Receptor for the AIDS Retrovirus.” Nature 312 ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 6.4 Barton Haynes — Development of HIV Vaccine: Steps and Missteps (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... Moderator): Quick question for Barton.  Haynes: Robin. 00:32:30 Robin Weiss: Very nice, Bart. I want to put you on the spot a moment because ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: Session 10: What Have We Learned? (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... been a problem ultimately. I really don’t believe that. I know Robin Weiss made that point. I bowed to it but I don’t think that’s the case. At least ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: Session 7: Prospects for an HIV Vaccine (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... issue for discussion. I’m sorry that Bart isn’t here. It has to do with Robin Weiss' question, which is: Why is it that, since RV 144, which is the only human trial ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 6.3 Bruce Walker — Role of T Cells in Controlling HIV Infection (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... I think that remains to be determined. Thanks very much. Oh, Robin? Robin Weiss: I'd just like to echo what Bob Gallo said. I'm on the board ...
Apr 27, 2021
Page: 4.4 Michael Worobey — Spread of HIV in the New World (HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future Meeting)
... trying to help out in another country. It's a quirk of history. Robin? Robin Weiss: Mike, that's a great story, and it's such a pity we lost Bill Hamilton ...
Apr 27, 2021

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