Robert Redfield: [00:00:00] Thank you very much. I also want to thank the organizers for the opportunity to talk today. For a couple of introductions, when the AIDS epidemic was started, I was at Walter Reed 1980, 1982, doing my infectious disease fellowship. Largely then and then soon thereafter I was put in the position to take care of the patients at Walter Reed that had AIDS. Within the healthcare system in the military, they rapidly referred patients [00:00:30] from all of the military centers. And so like Paul [Volberding], I found myself relatively unprepared for dealing with 20, 25-year-old, 35-year-old people that were terribly sick. And I want to publicly thank Paul for—he was available for us to talk to, and helped us all know that we weren't in this alone even though I think the first 100 people I took care of all died in the ICU a miserable death.
The second thing I got to do [00:01:00] when I was at Walter Reed that helped me get through those early years was, because of my friend Bill Blattner, he introduced me to Bob Gallo. I got to also go to that monthly lab meeting, which gave me a great deal of hope, because when I go back to the clinics, I could tell that science was going to make a big difference. Every month when I got there, I just felt that this was going to change.
The other thing that happened to me was, because I was in the health care [00:01:30] system, and when HIV was discovered as the cause, and the antibody test was made, the military made wide use of it throughout all the personnel on active duty, and very rapidly we had about 12,000 young people that had HIV infection. We had to develop a care delivery system to integrate them into our care system. I very rapidly had to help bring our eight medical centers up to speed to begin to provide care and treatment for [00:02:00] this population. Little did I know that some of that experience would come to pass as we did the PEPFAR program.
As Dan [Barouch] said, I had the opportunity to create then the Department of Retrovirus Research. A lot of good people came through there, Nelson Michael, Merlin Robb, John Mascola, Jerome Kim, Debbie Birx. Many of them have really productive relationships with you all here, and have done great work. That was something I was very proud to have been part of. [00:02:30] Retired at 20 years, I got the opportunity again to reach out to Bob, and see if we're— and he reached out to me, and reach out to Bill—if we could put an institute together that would try to continue the journey, and try to provide meaningful solutions to the AIDS epidemic. Bob may not know it but, he takes substantial responsibility for the reason Bill Blattner and I eventually ended up spending time overseas in Africa, because we really had no intent—[00:03:00] I didn't never thought I would be doing the global health work that I got involved in. Robert Gallo had this passion to see that science didn't sit on the shelf; it had to be applied. Rapidly it was clear that there were potential solutions to some of the challenges. That became something I think none of us ever predicted that the Institute of Human Virology would get this involved in global health.
I'm going to go back for a couple of slides just to what it was like in 2000. It was clear there was major advances coming in therapeutics [00:03:30] in our country. It was also clear that things weren't going well particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and this epidemic could really lead to some really catastrophic events if this somehow wasn't turned around. You can see at that time, most of the AIDS epidemic was in sub-Saharan Africa that had the least resources. (1, 2) Most of the deaths were in sub-Saharan Africa that didn't really have access to therapy. There was an enormous impact on life expectancy that was coming that really could become a major [00:04:00] destabilizing force. (3)
Even UNAIDS predicted that even if we could cut infection in half as Mark showed when he gave his talk, we were still looking at lifetime risk of many of these African men of having HIV infection at 30%, 40%, 50%. I was given the opportunity then—Max Essex was in Botswana. He was starting a program—Bob already alluded to how important what Max has done. It's even more remarkable to me that his basic training initially was as a veterinarian, yet [00:04:30] I think he's probably done as much as anybody to help Africa. He invited me to be part of this original meeting that he had Botswana, the first AIDS meeting, where the president of Botswana (Festus Mogae, b. 1939) was actually there at the AIDS meeting. He actually assigned each of his ministers to be the rapporteur for different sessions. I was in the antiretroviral session, and the poor minister of finance had to summarize each of the talks that day. But the president actually started with a very, very sobering comment that he actually said that he [00:05:00] thought their country could be threatened for extinction. Max basically showed that Botswana, for whatever reason, had in almost a 30% to 40% infection rate at the time. This was in the year 2000.
I come back from that, and I have a note from the vice president of Malawi, who wanted me to come to Malawi. I'm not sure who arranged it, but he had this idea that Malawi should be able to get access to therapy because [00:05:30] his 16-year-old daughter had just died. Clearly, Malawi at that time similar to Botswana was challenged. You can see his quote here, he too was concerned about the security of his nation because of the AIDS epidemic. I, in my free time in vacation, my wife and I decided to look around for a hospital in Malawi to see if we could get a more realistic understanding of what was really needed. Small Catholic hospital on the border Zimbabwe called [00:06:00] St Gabriel's. When you look at this map, the three people there were the health care team, one doctor, one clinical officer, and one nurse. They were the only health care facility for 250,000 people. And those three children were there because both of their parents had died while we were there from AIDS.
And so rapidly—one of the gentlemen that were there—I know if I go backward—This gentleman here in the white coat at the very end, [unintelligible 00:06:27] began to teach me African [00:06:30] medicine. As Bruce also clearly learned, and agree with Bob the substantial contributions that you've made in South Africa—He began to teach me because I immediately wanted to go to people like John Martin, get some therapy, and start getting treating people. He said, "Professor, you can't treat people. You got to develop the community." We spent the next year training villages and chiefs. Actually of the 60 chiefs, the gentleman there in the white shirt in the middle where I'm standing behind was the chief of all the chiefs. He was the chief of all [00:07:00] 60 villages. Actually 56 of them came and learned about AIDS, so that when we started our mother to child transmission program, we had about a 96% acceptance because we developed the community.
We began to start HIV treatment there. I'm not a big advocate of the nevirapine programs. They were good, but I thought a better strategy was to try to provide comprehensive antiretroviral therapy. This is the original group of 10 women that we were able to treat. [00:07:30] At the end of that year President [George W.] Bush actually sent a team from the White House, as well as the ambassador. They looked at the program. I think the thing that really helped some of them understand, I showed them those 10 women, and I said, "By keeping them alive we prevented 56 orphans." As then President Bush made the historic decision to form PEPFAR.
As Tony [Fauci] commented, Tony really did from 2002 to 2003, [00:08:00] he was really working very hard behind the scenes to help try to develop, not only the ability to get a commitment to do it but more importantly if you did actually succeed and get the commitment, how are you going to implement it? He really played a critical role as was said the other day by Jim Curran, and being able to translate that, deserves an enormous amount of credit. The PEPFAR program, I think, was the largest initiative for a country for a single disease. President Clinton obviously realized it's a political reality, it's not easy for [00:08:30] all presidents to get things through Congress. He acknowledged that he thought Bush was in the right place at the right time.
These were the original goals of the PEPFAR program, the original $15 billion investment. I mentioned this the other day, the other opportunity I had, was I got to be on the president's advisory board, and I actually got the chair of the international subcommittee. It was an introduction a little to policy. It became very clear at the very beginning to us that if this was going to work—because at the time we were spending about $15,000 [00:09:00] a patient for access to drugs—that this wasn't going to work unless somebody would begin to solve that problem. I mentioned the other day, John Martin gets an enormous amount of credit that he joined the committee and really took on—the Clinton Foundation, did a lot on understanding true costing analysis that helped bring prices down, but then it was going through parallel pricing, conditional approval. But It really wasn't until the branded companies decided they would really work with the generic companies to give them the technology, [00:09:30]share what they've already learned so they can make the best generic products at the cheapest cost. I think Bob Gallo and our institute gave John the Lifetime Achievement Award for public service, which a lot of people thought was unusual for a pharmaceutical company. The truth is he has done that, and I hope their company continues to do that. He made a big difference and today as I mentioned yesterday, we can treat people in our PEPFAR program now for about $82 a year, and when we started it was over $15,000.
I got involved [00:10:00] in the PEPFAR program because many of you remember in December of 2003, CDC put out a RFA, HERSA put out a RFA for people to bid to help be part of the PEPFAR programs. It was put out December 3rd, the grants were due December 31st. They were viewed in January and actually we got the award in February, and we were told to start in March. And I think Max Essex and Harvard School of Public Health, Columbia School of Public Health, Elizabeth Glaser Foundation [00:10:30] and our consortium got those original track one awards and we were given the task.
When I was in the military one of the things you get to do when you're in military is they assign you to go to different places. I got to go to different places and not always very dense places in central Africa, Afghan border. One of the things I learned was that the healthcare facilities that really worked in those places were frequently associated with faith-based associations. [00:11:00] When this thing came up, I decided to put a group together, and it happened to be the head of the American Catholic churches relief for around the world happened to be eight blocks from where the Institute is. We were able to get the bishops and Cardinals of the Catholic Church to say, okay, we're in. We were able to get a group, not part of the church, but Catholic Medical Mission Board, which was founded to give medicine to Haiti back in the early 1900s. We were able to get the Protestant groups called [00:11:30] Medical Association was 16 different denominations and a group called Futures Group, which was a policy group in Washington.
We were able to put them all together and put this consortium together to try to do it. Our first year targets we were asked to basically treat about 25,000 people. We were in 10 countries. You can see we had multiple sites. I want to take a second just to acknowledge we had a few sites initially in South Africa, I had an opportunity to visit [00:12:00] Bruce—this is pre PEPFAR now—and I can tell you that even though he didn't take credit for it, he should have when Bob said that he deserves a great deal of credit. The site that he had in 2004 was already providing high quality care to the people in that village and really making a difference in their lives, and you've seen what he's been able to do, and also make that also contribute significantly to science. He deserves a great credit, and he did that really all on his own.
These are examples—We were able to treat almost 400,000 people in the initial PEPFAR through 2012. [00:12:30] It was remarkable. We were able to make progressive impacts in mortality by medical education, I think, and teaching people how to practice medicine. There was a lot of issues on whether we could keep this going, because if we went away the US went—first line, second line, third line, salvage, deep salvage—that this was not going to be a sustainable program. So durability of the initial regiment was key and I think we finally got to the right place. We're using the right backbones now, tenofovir cytosine analog and hopefully Dolutegravir (DTG) will come in. [00:13:00] Max mentioned that Botswana now has it as its first line regimen. Treatment strategy finally got to where we're thinking we want to be treat. You don't need to wait.
Care delivery system was the one that's our most remarkable and I just want to give one quick example because here's the system where we had the WHO counseling or a little more intense, or we developed what we called treatment guardians that would actually be paired up with patients and then the treatment guardians were actually supervised by a paramedical [00:13:30] personnel. This is what we found, and we couldn't tell the hospitals what to do, that was part of the deal. We were there to give technical assistance based on how they decided. You can see most of the hospitals selected initially to do a tier one, tier two, and you can see that the data showed though that the loss to follow-up rate for those that use tier three with the treatment guardians was 5% and those guardians who were actually supervised, we had lost to follow-up rates over 12 months in Africa of less than 1%. [00:14:00] You can see the advantage of data. Five years later most of the sites had changed and we were able to keep the loss to follow-up rate very low. Remarkable to us, and much more remarkable than we do in Baltimore, that all through Africa where we did our surveillance just to make sure these programs were being optimally implemented. We were able to show that we could have viral suppression rates with the current drugs and the current thing and the current fields of almost 88% throughout Africa. [00:14:30]
The original PEPFAR program we were in, we treated 700,000 people. Got 10,000 people in care by 2012, treated almost 400,000 very happy and so were the American bishops that we were able to transfer that responsibility to indigenous organizations in 2012, and we trained a lot of people. You've seen the data, Tony talked about it. The PEPFAR program has made an impact on survival and incidents. [00:15:00] Obviously there's still a lot to do. I think one of the other speakers showed this. We've gone from when we started 50,000 people on antiretrovirals. now about 17 million with the global fund and the other countries participating. PEPFAR is probably responsible for about 9.9 million of those. Still about half the people don't have access to therapy.
I think this is the graph that you get people agitated. (4) This is looking at the countries that were allowed to be part of the PEPFAR focus program and the countries in Africa that weren't, and this is looking at the changes [00:15:30] in mortality. Enormous impact of mortality countrywide. Obviously there was also an impact in reducing infection. You'll see more data on that. And there was an enormous impact on stopping pediatric infections. I think the PEPFAR program has been historic. It's been highly successful. There's still a lot to do, or I think Mark Harrington and others know that the next real key is to make sure the key populations at risk and get access to pre-exposure prophylaxis and obviously [00:16:00] expand treatment to more countries.
Our institute continues to be involved in global health. One of the challenges is once you get into it, it's pretty hard to drop out of it. We currently have over 32 grants. Bob, I think was very proud of the fact that last year with Bill Blattner and our program and we've passed a million people now that we've been able to get on treatment. We've got a number of new grants. I've talked to John Mellors already. This footprint is available to other people [00:16:30] if they want to take advantage of it. We have a fairly big footprint now. We have 20 of our institute's faculty, and we're very proud that we've trained them, and 18 of them are African. Robb Sheneberger who's Caucasian is married to an African and Jim Cassidy who's Caucasian actually grew up in Ghana. We have a strong group of African physicians that we've trained and put back into Africa. We've got strong groups. These are our seven teams now and I'm proud to say all but two of them are actually natives of their country [00:17:00] and they've been trained.
Bob and others we've been able to train like Warner Greene does with the Accordia. We've got a variety of programs that we've done. We have a one-year program in Haiti that trains MDs in Haiti, infectious disease, 18-month program in Zambia. We got a one to two year program in Rwanda where we've actually trained a doctor and a nurse for the minister of health through every single district hospital in Rwanda. [Unintelligible] now has a network. We've got a three-year internal medicine infectious disease program in Ghana that just finished. [00:17:30] Then we have a four year internal medicine program in Zambia. You see in the corner of there at the bottom of this Bob thing, I'm also proud of and Warner can appreciate this is last September we were finally able to initiate the first infectious disease training program for pediatrician graduates of residency in internal medicine in sub-Saharan Africa outside of South Africa. These are the first two student fellows that will be completing [00:18:00] and get registered by the Kenyan government certified as sub-specialists in infectious disease.
I want to come back to where I started with Max. This was the other quote that the president ended with. Bob knows I have a spiritual dimension to me. I do believe in some of these things. I thought it was ironic after you said this extinction he ended the talk by saying by the year 2016, the spread of HIV virus that causes AIDS will have stopped, so there are no new more infections by that year in his country. [00:18:30] He said that 16 years ago when there was no evidence for it.
And really the credit to illustrate what Bob said already is to Max and he's obviously taught me a great deal about how to work in Africa. He established the first partnership. He talked about it, to provide antiretroviral therapy and then the government in 2002 went on to make it their first national program—again, before PEPFAR. He was able to decrease mother to child transmission in [00:19:00] Botswana, which was significant, 45% to less than 1%. The recent data that they published in Lancet showed that he's almost brought the country to the 1999 goals, and really it's a real attribute to what he's accomplished. (5) We're privileged in last year that the CDC gave us money to also to continue to work with Max and his team. That's there now to try to help bring Botswana to the end of the goal line so that we can actually achieve [00:19:30] epidemic control. We have a strong team there and we're excited about doing that.
Finally, I want to turn back to home for a second. I was 10 years old when President Kennedy made this speech. I remember I just assumed it was a matter of fact we'd be on the moon before 1970, but I think people with greater knowledge probably thought, how are you going to get on the moon and get back? Do we really know how to do that? [00:20:00] Yet he provided that vision and leadership and he got the nation to accomplish it and obviously, in July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong actually walked on the moon.
I think the position, and Mark Harrington said this, Bob Gallo has been a big advocate, that in countries like the United States, we do have the tools if we want to use them to end the epidemic. We need to diagnose people and get them in care. We need to keep them in care, we need to [00:20:30] effectively treat them which I think we can do if we can keep them in care. That's the challenge, keeping them in care. We need to get key populations on PrEP. Right now there's about 1.2 million people estimated to be key population in America and there's 80,000 people actually on PrEP. Again, it's something that works and obviously I believe we need to continue research for an efficacious vaccine so that other nations can have the benefit that may not be totally feasible as we can in the United States.
Bob over the [00:21:00] last, God, I think it's been now about five years he's been writing op-ed pieces in the Washington Post, to try to motivate political leaders to take seriously the opportunity we would have if we would take the lessons that we learned from PEPFAR and apply them in a way that maybe slightly different but same principles to the United States so that we really set the goal to end transmission of HIV in [00:21:30] a reasonable period of time going forward. (6, 7, 8, 9)
I have my miracle slide two. We should be more explicit here about step two, "Then a miracle occurs." You know, for me, I'm a clinician, I've been able to do some clinical research but I really learned by being able to work with Bob and see the work of many of you, it's very clear the miracles of the power of science, and when you see what science has accomplished in the last 30 years, it's remarkable.
This was my closing statement [00:22:00] after I got back from Malawi. Somehow I got to know a number of the African ambassadors to the United States and they asked me to present to all the African ambassadors of the United States, and this was the closing slide of that talk. I was trying to be an agitator, to get people to insist on trying to get nations to get access to therapy.
I really though want to end focus on the last comment [00:22:30] here, where I said that my belief was a greater success would come for all the power science and medicine would be refocused for the development of treatments that were capable of causing a sustainable improvement in health worldwide. I was talking to Mark again the other day, Mark Harrington, I think that's what you all done. I mean, it's remarkable that the AIDS community has really taken it and made sure that the world could access.
Finally, I talked to some of the colleagues here that are from Africa. [00:23:00] I want to say that this global health diplomacy that we did with PEPFAR. I think it's an example. I mean, it really is a method to change the hearts and minds of people worldwide. Many people don't find President Bush very popular, but I tell you when you see him dancing with the African people, they have great rejoice about what he was able to help bring to pass with the PEPFAR program. I hope you found my comments useful. Thank you.
Dan Barouch (Moderator): Questions?
Audience 1: Actually, I want to make a comment. As an African when I was growing up in the early 90s, at least I was old enough to realize what was happening. In Ghana, it was pretty fresh. The way the public reacted to [00:24:00] the HIV epidemic. Sitting down here today and listening to all the people whose efforts have brought us this far really gets me a little bit emotional. I want to thank all of you for taking HIV path even though initially, it wasn't such a huge problem for the west, but mostly a problem that sub-Sahara Africa was the predominant beneficiary. [00:24:30]
I wanted to thank you also for the effort that you put in. First of all making the time to go to Africa and seeing some of these things and being moved personally to action is a very remarkable thing and I want to be personally grateful to you, but I know that many people back in Africa are also very grateful to all the individuals like Bob Gallo himself whose effort especially in this kind of program had very positive [00:25:00]contributions.
One last thing that I will say is, if you get a chance to meet President Bush, tell him you met an African young man who is personally very grateful for listening to scientists who were passionate about eradicating HIV and seeing HIV as a better way of spending the taxpayer's money rather than putting in another program, which may have been more politically rewarding than HIV/AIDS [00:25:30] prevention, eradication and cure in Africa. If I get a chance to meet him, I will tell him exactly that. Thank you. [applause]
Bob Redfield: Okay.
Dan Barouch: Okay, thank you. We'll take one more question then we have to move on.
Audience 2 Yes, the program do training fellowships in African physicians and it's great. Are there, in the United States, are medical students doing fellowship at - [00:26:00] People who graduate medical schools going on to doing infectious disease fellowships or is that something that is?
Bob Redfield: Well, I think it's an important question. Unfortunately, we do have an ID training program, we have seven fellows per year. Two years ago, we had 330 applicants in the whole country of the United States. Last year, we had 220 applicants. Last year over 100 slots went unfilled, 114 actually, all right? I'm hoping this year we've, we were [00:26:30] interviewing now. We've gotten great applicants, but the infectious disease, the young people interested in infectious disease in America has somehow declined by over 30% in the last two years. It's a big issue. Some people think it's financial, because we're not the most highly paid professional, and they come out and now they've got this hospital stuff where kids can go out and make fairly big salaries and get out of debt and then they never come back in. [00:27:00]
Some of it is it's—truth is inner-city HIV care is hard work. It's not like the where we really needed in the rural south and in the inner cities. It's hard work because a lot of the patients aren't as, they don't have the life skills developed to the point that they can partner, like some of the early patients, even though we couldn't help them live, they had the life skills if we could do it, and a lot of people seen it [00:27:30] so I think it's a big deal. Bob Gallo and I have talked about it. It's a big deal, and it's important because I do think infectious disease and I hope you got it from my talk. What you all have accomplished with HIV infection, I think it's a model for other diseases to make sure that we don't quit until whatever we figure out how to help a disease gets to globally dispersed. I think that's what the privilege I've had working with Bob all these years and being part of this.
Robert Gallo: The privilege is ours. Five years ago, we formed something [00:28:00] called the Global Virus Network. It could have been called Global Infectious Disease Network. It didn't have to be limited to viruses. About 80% of the reason was that, but we just hobbled along because there's really no funding, but we have 38 centers globally with virologists connected. I think really high-quality medical virologists with the funding for this is extremely difficult. There's something's got to change. It's not [00:28:30] democratic, but almost like we should make medical schools have to produce X number of people who go toward microbiology. I mean, then somebody else in another field would say, "We got to do it for this field and that field," but when you hear that story, that you got 100 unfulfilled things and there's only 300 nationwide, I couldn't believe them.
The other point I'd like to make the problem, as Bob said that maybe people didn't really think about it carefully. I remember when this first started, and a lot of people told us, and I have to admit I was [00:29:00] thinking that way too. That you're crazy. Africa? They won't do this. They won't do that. Going to Nigeria, they'll never, you'll end up with monstrous problems, et cetera. It's easier in Africa to treat the people, as Bob tells me and as Bill Blattner used to tell me all the time, than it is in Washington DC and in Baltimore, Maryland. They follow better, they take the drugs better, everything is better. Once you get the support, which is, I guess I would say I thought was shocking at the beginning but now I'm accustomed to think, "Yes, we can do [00:29:30] it in Africa."
Dan Barouch: Great. Thanks very much.
[00:29:36] [END OF AUDIO]
- Steinbrook, Robert. “Beyond Barcelona — The Global Response to HIV.” New England Journal of Medicine 347, no. 8 (August 22, 2002): 553–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMp020094.
- “Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002.” UNAIDS report 02.26E, July 2002.
- Essex, Myron, Souleymane M’Boup, Phyllis J. Kanki, Richard G. Marlink, and Sheila D. Tlou, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Kluwer Academic, 2002. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10067296.
- Bendavid, Eran, Charles B. Holmes, Jay Bhattacharya, and Grant Miller. “HIV Development Assistance and Adult Mortality in Africa.” JAMA 307, no. 19 (May 16, 2012): 2060–67. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.2001.
- Gaolathe, Tendani, Kathleen E. Wirth, Molly Pretorius Holme, Joseph Makhema, Sikhulile Moyo, Unoda Chakalisa, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, et al. “Botswana’s Progress Toward Achieving the 2020 UNAIDS 90–90–90 Antiretroviral Treatment and Virologic Suppression Goals: Results of a Population-Based Survey.” The Lancet HIV 3, no. 5 (May 2016): e221–30. doi:10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00037-0.
- Gallo, Robert C. “Inner Cities Need an AIDS Relief Program.” Washington Post, November 16, 2008; B07, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/11/14/AR2008111403323.html
- “Editorial: We Need Routine HIV Testing Here in the United States.” Washington Post, December 6, 2008; A14, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/05/AR2008120503361.html
- “The Obama Administration Starts to Combat HIV Complacency in the United States.” Washington Post, April 14, 2009; A16, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/13/AR2009041302442.html
- Gallo, Robert C. “A PEPFAR for D.C. and Baltimore.” Washington Post, July 20, 2012, sec. Opinions. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-pepfar-for-dc-and-baltimore/2012/07/20/gJQAVbZbyW_story.html.
- 1.7 Max Essex — From Feline Leukemia Virus to AIDS in Africa
- 2.1 Paul Volberding — The First Patients
- 2.2 James Curran — Deciphering the Epidemiology of AIDS
- 2.3 Mark Harrington — The Importance of Activism to the US Response
- 2.4 Robert Gallo — Discoveries of Human Retrovirus, Their Linkage to Disease as Causative Agents & Preparation for the Future
- 3.6 John C. Martin — Making it Simpler: A Single Pill to Treat HIV
- 6.3 Bruce Walker — Role of T Cells in Controlling HIV Infection
- Africa, sub-Saharan Africa
- antibody test, antigen test, serological test, serology
- basic vs. applied research
- Birx, Deborah L. (b. 1956)
- Blattner, William A.
- Bush, George W. (b. 1946)
- CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US)
- Clinton Foundation
- Clinton, Bill (b. 1946)
- community and patient participation
- Congress, US
- DTG (dolutegravir)
- generic drug
- Harvard University, Harvard Medical School
- infectious disease (medical specialty)
- intensive care unit (ICU)
- Kim, Jerome
- lab vs. clinic
- Lancet (journal)
- Mascola, John R.
- medical school, residency, and fellowship
- Michael, Nelson L.
- military service
- Mogae, Festus G. (b. 1939)
- mother-to-child transmission of HIV
- nevirapine (NVP, Viramune)
- pediatrics, pediatric AIDS
- PEPFAR (President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief)
- pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
- Robb, Merlin L.
- Session 6: Immunology and Prevention
- Session 9: Public Event
- South Africa
- tenofovir (TDF, Viread)
- veterinary medicine
- Walter Reed Army Medical Center (1909–2011)
- Washington Post
- Washington, D.C.
- World Health Organization (WHO)
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... Vaccine Development: Will the Future be any Easier than the Past? https://libwiki.cshl.edu/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=12943562&src=contextnavpagetreemode 6.6 Robert Redfield — The PEPFAR Program to Treat HIV in Africa https://libwiki.cshl.edu/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=12943564&src=contextnavpagetreemode 6.7 Salim AbdoolKarim — Stopping ...
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... virologist, cofounded the Institute of Human Virology (IHV) with Robert Gallo and Robert R. Redfield in 1996 at University of Maryland
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... been very interesting to be a part of this, just as an anecdote, right about in this timeframe, Bob Redfield understood all of this. He asked me to join him on unintelligible 00:24 ...
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... 00:31:39. Marty: Oh, please do. John: Bob? Robert Redfield: I just wanted to make a point. Maybe you didn't emphasize it, but I ...
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... It's being rolled out as part of the PrEP program. I know Bob Redfield will get to that a little bit later today. There were the three completed studies of tenofovir ...
Apr 27, 2021
... Most of the people on that slide, several of whom are here, like Barton Haynes and Bob Redfield, and Sam Broder (also on the slide are James Oleske, Jim Hoxie, Jerome E ...
Apr 27, 2021
... now in South Africa is too high. You heard today from Bob Redfield that ART 00:58:00 is now $85 a year and that's just remarkable ...
Apr 27, 2021
... Beatrice H., George M. Shaw, Maria E. Taylor, Robert. R. Redfield, Phil D. Markham, Syed Zaki Salahuddin, Flossie WongStaal, Robert C ...
Apr 27, 2021
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